Difference between revisions of "Perideridia gairdneri"

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''Perideridia gairdneri,'' also called Gairdner's yampah, common yampah, or Gardner's yampah is a flowering plant in the Apiaceae family.  
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'''Common name:''' Gairdner's yampah, common yampah, or Gardner's yampah
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[[File:Pega.jpeg|thumb|right|300px| ''Perideridia gairdneri'' <br/> Photo Credit Robert Gilbert]]
  
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'''Abbreviation Code (Codon):''' PEGA
 
==Taxonomy==
 
==Taxonomy==
*Kingdom - Plantae – Plants
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*Kingdom - Plantae
*Subkingdom - Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
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*Subkingdom - Tracheobionta
*Superdivision - Spermatophyta – Seed plants
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*Superdivision - Spermatophyta  
*Division - Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
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*Division - Magnoliophyta  
*Class -Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
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*Class -Magnoliopsida  
 
*Subclass - Rosidae
 
*Subclass - Rosidae
 
*Order - Apiales
 
*Order - Apiales
*Family - Apiaceae – Carrot family
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*Family - Apiaceae  
 
*Genus - Perideridia
 
*Genus - Perideridia
 
*Species - P. gairdneri
 
*Species - P. gairdneri
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<ref name=The PLANTS Database>USDA, NRCS. 2012. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 16 April 2012). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.</ref>
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==Description==
 
==Description==
''P. gairdneri'' is a thick, tuberous rooted perennial herb that is slender and hairless. It has solitary, leafy stems, and grows from 40 - 120 cm tall. It has several, well distributed leaves that are once or two times pinnately divided into long, narrow segments. Flowers are white or pink and small, and are united in groups to form one to several compound umbels. Fruits are nearly spherical and slightly flattened, with distinct ribs. Fruits 2 - 3 mm long.  
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'''General:''' Slender, glabrous perennial from a tuberous-thickened, edible, usually solitary root, the solitary stem 4-12 dm. tall. </br>
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'''Leaves:''' Leaves several, well distributed along the stem, the blade once pinnate or ternate; the ultimate segments elongate and narrow. </br>
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'''Flowers:''' Inflorescence of terminal and 1-several lateral compound umbels, the umbels 2.5-7 cm. wide; rays up to 6 cm. long at maturity; involucre of a few, narrow bracts; involucre of bristly bracelets, or wanting; calyx teeth well developed; flowers white. </br>
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'''Fruit:''' Fruit glabrous, sub-orbicular, 2-3 mm. long and wide, with prominent ribs.
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-cnlm pages
  
Source: Pojar pg 221
 
 
 
==Bloom Period==
 
==Bloom Period==
 
July to August
 
July to August
Source: http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php
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<ref name=Burke>Source: http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php</ref>
  
 
==Distribution==
 
==Distribution==
Occurs from British Columbia to Saskatchewan, south across the Rockies and West Coast, down to Southern California.
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Occurs from southern B.C. to southern California and east to Saskatchewan, South Dakota and Colorado
 
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-cnlm pages
Source: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PEGA3
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==Habitat==
 
==Habitat==
Dry to vernally moist open forest, meadow, or grassy slope. Low to middle elevation.  
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Perideridia gairdneri prefers well-drained, nitrogen medium soils. It tolerates slightly acid to mildly alkaline soils. It is very shade intolerant. It is a climax species in drier sites, and is found in the meadow communities in Garry oak ecosystems.
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Grows from low to middle elevations.  
  
Source: Pojar 221
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CNLM pages
  
 
==Uses==
 
==Uses==
Roots of ''P. gairdneri'' were eaten my Straits Salish and other First Peoples groups of the Northwest, and by interior peoples from south central British Columbia, to the great basin. The roots were pounded by native people to make flour.
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Roots either eaten boiled or dried and pounded to make a flour with an anise seed-like taste
  
Source: Pojar pg 221
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<ref name=Pojar> Pojar, MacKinnon 1994</ref>
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Blackfoot Drug (Antidiarrheal) - Infusion of roots taken to counteract cathartic and emetic effects of another infusion.
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Blackfoot Drug (Antiemetic) - Infusion of roots taken to counteract cathartic and emetic effects of another infusion.
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Blackfoot Drug (Breast Treatment) - Infusion of roots used to massage sore breasts with warm stones
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Blackfoot Drug (Cough Medicine) - Infusion of roots or roots chewed for coughs.
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Blackfoot Drug (Cough Medicine)  - Root smudge smoke inhaled for nagging coughs.
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Blackfoot Drug (Dermatological Aid) - Infusion of roots applied to sores and wounds.
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 +
 
 +
cnlm pages
  
 
==Propagation==
 
==Propagation==
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Hand collect seeds in August when seeds have turned brown and are easily stripped off inflorescence into paper bags.
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Store seeds in sealed containers at 5º C.  Seed will retain viability for up to five years. Sow seeds in fall and allow natural stratification, or sow stored seeds in the spring after six to eight weeks of cold, moist stratification.
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===The Seed===
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[[File:Pega seed.png|thumb|right|300px|''Perideridia gairdneri'' </br> Photo Credit Lisa Hintz]]
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Peridendia gairdneri
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Seed sample from 2011
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====Features====
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'''Average Measurement:''' 2.3 x 1 x 1
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'''Measurement Range:''' L: 1.5 – 3, W: 0.8 – 1.1, D: 0.75 – 1.3
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'''Latitudinal Cross Section:''' ovate
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'''Longitudinal Cross Section:''' elliptical
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'''Shape:''' Seed schizoid, flat on one plane, and rounded on the opposite plane. Lots of irregularity in shape.
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'''Color:''' Various shades of green and brown. Hilum usually white. Some seeds have pink from remnant flower structure at apex opposite hilum.
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'''Surface:''' Seeds have five ridges on outer seed face that run from hilum to opposite apex longitudinally. Inner seed face has one white rib that bisects the seed face.
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{{Basics}}
  
 
==Photo Gallery==
 
==Photo Gallery==
http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php
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<gallery>
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Image:PEGA CNLMvol flw 2007.JPG
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</gallery>
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==References==
 
==References==
 
<References/>
 
<References/>

Latest revision as of 09:48, 28 May 2012

Common name: Gairdner's yampah, common yampah, or Gardner's yampah

Perideridia gairdneri
Photo Credit Robert Gilbert

Abbreviation Code (Codon): PEGA

Taxonomy

  • Kingdom - Plantae
  • Subkingdom - Tracheobionta
  • Superdivision - Spermatophyta
  • Division - Magnoliophyta
  • Class -Magnoliopsida
  • Subclass - Rosidae
  • Order - Apiales
  • Family - Apiaceae
  • Genus - Perideridia
  • Species - P. gairdneri

[1]


Description

General: Slender, glabrous perennial from a tuberous-thickened, edible, usually solitary root, the solitary stem 4-12 dm. tall.
Leaves: Leaves several, well distributed along the stem, the blade once pinnate or ternate; the ultimate segments elongate and narrow.
Flowers: Inflorescence of terminal and 1-several lateral compound umbels, the umbels 2.5-7 cm. wide; rays up to 6 cm. long at maturity; involucre of a few, narrow bracts; involucre of bristly bracelets, or wanting; calyx teeth well developed; flowers white.
Fruit: Fruit glabrous, sub-orbicular, 2-3 mm. long and wide, with prominent ribs.

-cnlm pages

Bloom Period

July to August

[2]

Distribution

Occurs from southern B.C. to southern California and east to Saskatchewan, South Dakota and Colorado -cnlm pages

Habitat

Perideridia gairdneri prefers well-drained, nitrogen medium soils. It tolerates slightly acid to mildly alkaline soils. It is very shade intolerant. It is a climax species in drier sites, and is found in the meadow communities in Garry oak ecosystems. Grows from low to middle elevations.

CNLM pages

Uses

Roots either eaten boiled or dried and pounded to make a flour with an anise seed-like taste

[3]

Blackfoot Drug (Antidiarrheal) - Infusion of roots taken to counteract cathartic and emetic effects of another infusion.

Blackfoot Drug (Antiemetic) - Infusion of roots taken to counteract cathartic and emetic effects of another infusion.

Blackfoot Drug (Breast Treatment) - Infusion of roots used to massage sore breasts with warm stones

Blackfoot Drug (Cough Medicine) - Infusion of roots or roots chewed for coughs.

Blackfoot Drug (Cough Medicine) - Root smudge smoke inhaled for nagging coughs.

Blackfoot Drug (Dermatological Aid) - Infusion of roots applied to sores and wounds.


cnlm pages

Propagation

Hand collect seeds in August when seeds have turned brown and are easily stripped off inflorescence into paper bags. Store seeds in sealed containers at 5º C. Seed will retain viability for up to five years. Sow seeds in fall and allow natural stratification, or sow stored seeds in the spring after six to eight weeks of cold, moist stratification.


The Seed

Perideridia gairdneri
Photo Credit Lisa Hintz

Peridendia gairdneri

Seed sample from 2011

Features

Average Measurement: 2.3 x 1 x 1

Measurement Range: L: 1.5 – 3, W: 0.8 – 1.1, D: 0.75 – 1.3

Latitudinal Cross Section: ovate

Longitudinal Cross Section: elliptical

Shape: Seed schizoid, flat on one plane, and rounded on the opposite plane. Lots of irregularity in shape.

Color: Various shades of green and brown. Hilum usually white. Some seeds have pink from remnant flower structure at apex opposite hilum.

Surface: Seeds have five ridges on outer seed face that run from hilum to opposite apex longitudinally. Inner seed face has one white rib that bisects the seed face.

Basic Explanations and Assumptions:

The dimensions for the seeds are length x width x depth. The location of the hilum is used as the base of the seed, and the length is measured from hilum to the opposite apex. Where a style is present, the length is measured from the hilum to the bottom of the style. Width is measured at a right angle to the length at the widest part. Depth is measured at a right angle to the intersection of height and width lines.

Measurements included are the mean average for each measurement of ten separate seeds.

All measurements in millimeters unless otherwise noted.

Photo Gallery


References

  1. USDA, NRCS. 2012. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 16 April 2012). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.
  2. Source: http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php
  3. Pojar, MacKinnon 1994