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Thinking about thinking. References: Bransford et al

"Metacognition refers to people's abilities to predict their performances on various task and to monitor their current levels of mastery and understanding". References: Bransford et al

Metacognition is defined as "cognition about cognition", or "knowing about knowing."[1] It can take many forms; it includes knowledge about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for problem solving.1. Metamemory, defined as knowing about memory and mnemonic strategies, is an especially important form of metacognition."2. Differences in metacognitive processing across cultures have not been widely studied, but could provide better outcomes in cross-cultural learning between teachers and students.3. Some evolutionary psychologists hypothesize that metacognition is used as a survival tool, which would make metacognition the same across cultures.4. Writings on metacognition can be traced back at least as far as De Anima and the Parva Naturalia of the Greek philosopher Aristotle.