Wolf conservation: Civic Intelligence example for Humankind
Prepared by Dale Bristow
Submitted to Douglas Schuler
Civic Intelligence: Theory and Practice
Case Study: Wolf Conservation: Wolf Haven Internaional
Week 8, Wednesday, 5/18/2011
- Historical decline of the wolf
Long before humankind became the dominant species on Earth, wolves held that place of honor. Wolves are considered a keystone species that sits atop of the food chain. They maintained a balance in the eco-systems they inhabited. At one time, wolves covered much of the North American continent. According to wolf biologist L. David Mech, the wolf was originally “the most widely distributed mammal in the world” (Busch 2007). Unfortunately, as humans evolved and expanded in population as well as into the top predator, they began to have conflicts with wolves. In many cultures, the wolf became a thing of evil and danger. As far back as 600 B.C, stories attributed to Aesop talked about the cunning and wickedness of wolves (Busch, 2007). This fear and loathing spread from Asia and Europe and made it’s way to North America. The Native Americans did not share this feeling towards the wolf. They respected and revered the wolf as one of the great spirit animals. Europeans however saw them as a problem that needed to be eradicated and began hunting and trapping wolves by the hundreds of thousands, such that by the 1970’s the only wolves left in the wild could be found in the Alaska, Canada and the north eastern tip of Minnesota
- Endangered Species Act of 1973
The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 was passed to “help endangered and threatened species recover from their low numbers so that they are no longer in danger of qualifying to be classified as endangered or threatened in the foreseeable future” (Archibald, 2004). By this time it was determined that the gray wolf population had been reduced by almost 95% of it’s historic population. Scientific estimates believe that prior to Europeans settling in North America there were as many as 400,000 wolves in the lower 48 states alone. The only wolves that remained in the wild in the lower 48 were a few hundred located in northern Minnesota and Michigan.
When the wolf was listed on the ESA in 1973, only the subspecies, Rocky Mountain Gray wolf was listed. In 1978, the ESA was amended to include all subspecies of the gray wolf. There are currently five subspecies of gray wolf, the Arctic, Tundra, Rocky Mountain, Eastern Timer and the Mexican Gray. In 1982, the federal government once again amended the ESA to allow for the reintroduction of gray wolves in Yellowstone National Park and Central Idaho. After numerous legal challenges to the idea of reintroduction, wolves were relocated from Canada to Yellowstone and central Idaho. Since those reintroductions, the population has grown where now there are over 1,500 wolves located in the Rocky Mountain region that encompasses Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, eastern Washington, eastern Oregon and northern Utah. In the Great Lakes region the recovery is even greater with an estimated population of over 5,000 wolves in Minnesota, Michigan and Wisconsin. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said for the Mexican Grey wolf that was at the very verge of total extinction in the wild. There are currently about 42 wolves in the wild in Arizona and New Mexico and the struggle to have those numbers increase continues.
There are a number of organizations and sanctuaries that work for wolf conservation. Most of these began in the 1970’s and ‘80’s and are non-profit's that operate via contributions, gifts and volunteer support. They include but are not limited to the following:
- Wolf Haven, International
- Colorado Wolf and Wildlife Center
- Wolf Mountain Sanctuary
- Runs with Wolves Sanctuary
- Wolf Education Research Center
- International Wolf Center
- Defenders of Wildlife
- California Wolf Center
- Endangered Wolf Center
- Northern Rockies Wolf Collaborative
- Animal Welfare Institute
- National Wildlife Federation
- Sierra Club
- Wolf Song of Alaska
- National Parks Conservation Association
- Greater Yellowstone Coalition
- Idaho Conservation League
- The Wilderness Society
- Southern Utah Wilderness Alliance
- Grizzly and Wolf Discovery Center
- Lakota Wolf Preserve
- Seacrest Wolf Preserve
- Timber Wolf Information Network
- White Wolf Sanctuary
- Wild Spirit Wolf Sanctuary
- Wolf Conservation Center
- Wolf Hollow
- Wolf Howl Animal Preserve
- Wolf Park
- Wolf Sanctuary of Pennsylvania
- Wolf Timbers
As noted above, the number of organizations that contribute or are directly involved with wolf conservation in some form is lengthy. This list does not even encompass the large number of organizations worldwide that do similar work. In order to look at how the issue of wolf conservation is dealt with using civic intelligence, I will only use one organization as an example.
Wolf Haven International (WHI), located in Tenino, Washington, is a non-profit organization that was founded in 1982 by a couple that wanted to provide a home for captive born wolves. As WHI grew over the years the mission became that of "working for wolf conservation by protecting wild wolves, providing sanctuary for captive-born wolves, promoting wolf restoration in historic ranges and educating the public on the value of all wildlife". (WHI mission statement)
WHI's existence is due to a love and respect for wolves. This is shared by all that work for WHI. WHI operates under a guiding set of principles and perspectives. First and foremost is wolf conservation. To achieve this, WHI provides a sanctuary for captive-born wolves, promotes education on wolves to the general public and partners with other wildlife conservation organizations on issues of wildlife conservation and protection.
In addition to the conservation of wolves, WHI works to help restore wolves to their natural habitat. WHI participates in the Species Survival Program. This is a federal program developed to save the Red wolf and the Mexican Gray wolf, both of which were on the verge of extinction. As a participant of this program, WHI is a recognized breeding facility for the Red wolf and one of only 3 breeding and pre-release facilities for the Mexican Gray wolf.
To maintain it's focus on these goals, WHI staff and volunteers concentrate on using scientific data and knowledge to make decisions on care for the wolves as well as the information that is shared through educational and political outreach. WHI understands that the love of wolves alone will not help them survive either in captivity or the wild.
WHI is a 501 (c)(3) organization that is comprised of a Board of Directors, an Executive Director, a small paid staff and a large contingent of volunteers that are committed to the organizations vision of wolf conservation.
The paid staff and volunteers work closely together to maintain the day to day activities of the sanctuary as well the promotion of the ideals of WHI. The organization works hard to incorporate all players. The volunteers are involved in decision and policy making right along with the paid staff. WHI believes that everyone has a voice and that it takes collaboration of all parties to make positive changes for wolf conservation.
WHI's main goal is conservation of wolves in the wild as well as in captivity. To do this, they utilize a number of different tactics.
WHI continually works on educating the general public about wolves. This is accomplished with tours of the sanctuary as well as outreach trips to schools, presentations at community events and civic meetings and providing and maintaining social media outlets, i.e., web page, facebook and twitter.
WHI is involved in several communities as a member of their Chamber of Commerce's and continues to work with other civic organizations to promote not just wolf conservation but an understanding of how all wildlife play a keen role in maintaining the balance of nature.
WHI is also involved on the political front providing time and energy in meeting and working with local, state and federal officials on all issues related to wildlife conservation.
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