Difference between revisions of "Achillea millefolium"

From Puget Prairie Plants
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| binomial_authority =  
| binomial_authority =  
| synonyms =  
| synonyms =  
''Achillea borealis''
*''Achillea alpicola'' (Rydb.) Rydb.
''A. lanulosa'' Nutt. var. ''eradiata''  
*''Achillea angustissima'' Rydb.
''A. lanulosa''
*''Achillea arenicola'' A. Heller
''A. alpicola''
*''Achillea aspleniifolia'' auct. non Vent.
''A. borealis''
*''Achillea  borealis'' Bong.
''A. californica''
*''Achillea  californica'' Pollard
''A. lanulosa''
*''Achillea eradiata'' Piper
''A. litoralis''
*''Achillea fusca'' Rydb.
''A. millefolium''
*''Achillea gigantea'' Pollard
''A. occidentalis''
*''Achillea gracilis'' Raf.
''A. pacifica''
*''Achillea lanulosa'' Nutt.
''A. millefolium'' L. ssp. ''lanulosa''
*''Achillea  lanulosa'' Nutt. var. ''eradiata''  
*''Achillea megacephala'' Raup
*''Achillea nigrescens'' (E. Mey.) Rydb.
*''Achillea  occidentalis'' (DC.) Raf. ex Rydb.
*''Achillea  pacifica'' Rydb.
*''Achillea puberula'' Rydb.
*''Achillea rosea'' Desf.
*''Achillea subalpina'' Greene
*''Achillea tomentosa'' Pursh non L.
''Achillea  millefolium'' ssp. ''lanulosa'' (Nutt.) Piper
<ref>Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved from https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=35423</ref>
<ref>Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved from https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=35423</ref>

Revision as of 23:40, 17 March 2021

  • Latin Name: Achillea millefolium
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Common Names: milfoil, yarrow
  • Synonyms/Misapplications: Achillea borealis, Achillea lanulosa
  • Codon: ACHMIL


Achillea millefolium
Photo by Ray Izumi, 2009. Also featured on Main Page
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Subkingdom: Viridiplantae
Phylum: Tracheophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Achillea L.
Species: Achillea millefolium L.
  • Achillea alpicola (Rydb.) Rydb.
  • Achillea angustissima Rydb.
  • Achillea arenicola A. Heller
  • Achillea aspleniifolia auct. non Vent.
  • Achillea borealis Bong.
  • Achillea californica Pollard
  • Achillea eradiata Piper
  • Achillea fusca Rydb.
  • Achillea gigantea Pollard
  • Achillea gracilis Raf.
  • Achillea lanulosa Nutt.
  • Achillea lanulosa Nutt. var. eradiata
  • Achillea megacephala Raup
  • Achillea nigrescens (E. Mey.) Rydb.
  • Achillea occidentalis (DC.) Raf. ex Rydb.
  • Achillea pacifica Rydb.
  • Achillea puberula Rydb.
  • Achillea rosea Desf.
  • Achillea subalpina Greene
  • Achillea tomentosa Pursh non L.

Achillea millefolium ssp. lanulosa (Nutt.) Piper



Herbaceous perennial growing from rhizomes, from one to several stems up to heights of 8 to 16 inches. Tripinnate and lance-shaped leaves evenly distributed along stem with the leaves becoming smaller towards the top. Leaves typically between 1/4 inch to 1 1/4 inch wide and 1 1/4 inch long to 6 inches long. Flat-topped flower heads (inflorescence) containing 10-20 whitish to yellowish flowers. [2]

Bloom Period

April-October [3]

Distribution of Yarrow


"Widespread throughout North America" [2]


Common in open dry to moist areas from high to low elevations; drought tolerant [3]


Several tribes of the Plains region of the United States including the Pawnee and Chippewa tribes used common yarrow. The Pawnee used the stalk in a treatment for pain relief. The Chippewa used the leaves in a steam inhalant for headaches. They also chewed the roots and applied the saliva to their appendages as a stimulant. The Cherokee drank a tea of common yarrow to reduce fever and aid in restful sleep. [2]

Herbalist Michael Moore also writes that A. millefolium is a great benefit for acute fevers as a hot infusion, that it is an effective hemostatic, and that it helps with irritation of the GI mucosa. [4]


Clean seeds with hammer mill then air screen cleaner. Sow in field between May or June and September. Plant 50-70 seeds per foot 1/2" deep or less spaced in 3" rows.


Achillea millefolium, photo by Lisa Hintz

Seed sample from: 2011

Average Measurement: 1.9 x 0.6 x 0.3

Measurement Range: L: 1.6 - 2.1, W: 0.5 - 1, D: 0.2 - 0.5


Shape: Seed narrowly winged at margins, thicker in the middle. Seed face is narrower at hilum end, broadening at opposite side.

Color: Seed coat papery and white, becoming transparent at the center to reveal a red-brown inner seed.

Surface: Finely longitudinally ridged.

Latitudinal Cross Section: elliptical ACMI-lat-crosssection.png

Longitudinal Cross Section: obovate ACMI-long-crosssection.png

Basic Explanations and Assumptions:

The dimensions for the seeds are length x width x depth. The location of the hilum is used as the base of the seed, and the length is measured from hilum to the opposite apex. Where a style is present, the length is measured from the hilum to the bottom of the style. Width is measured at a right angle to the length at the widest part. Depth is measured at a right angle to the intersection of height and width lines.

Measurements included are the mean average for each measurement of ten separate seeds.

All measurements in millimeters unless otherwise noted.

Photo Gallery


  1. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved from https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=35423
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 USDA Plants Profile for Achillea millefolium
  3. 3.0 3.1 WTU Image Collection:Plants of Washington
  4. Moore, M. (2011). Medicinal plants of the Pacific West. Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press.