- Scientific Name: Achillea millefolium
- Family: Asteraceae
- Common Names: milfoil, yarrow
- Synonyms/Misapplications: Achillea borealis, Achillea lanulosa
- Codon: ACHMIL
|Genus:|| Achillea L.|
|Species:|| Achillea millefolium L.|
Herbaceous perennial growing from rhizomes, from one to several stems up to heights 10 dm. Tripinnate and lance-shaped leaves evenly distributed along stem with the leaves becoming smaller towards the top. Leaves typically between 1/4 inch to 1 1/4 inch wide and 1 1/4 inch long to 6 inches long. Inflorescences flat-topped, containing 10-20 whitish to yellowish, typically radiate pseudanthia. Fruits are achenes.
"Widespread throughout North America" 
Common in open dry to moist areas from high to low elevations; drought tolerant 
Several tribes of the Plains region of the United States including the Pawnee and Chippewa tribes used common yarrow. The Pawnee used the stalk in a treatment for pain relief. The Chippewa used the leaves in a steam inhalant for headaches. They also chewed the roots and applied the saliva to their appendages as a stimulant. The Cherokee drank a tea of common yarrow to reduce fever and aid in restful sleep. 
Herbalist Michael Moore also writes that A. millefolium is a great benefit for acute fevers as a hot infusion, that it is an effective hemostatic, and that it helps with irritation of the GI mucosa. 
Clean seeds with hammer mill then air screen cleaner. Sow in field between May or June and September. Plant 50-70 seeds per foot 1/2" deep or less spaced in 3" rows.
Seed sample from: 2011
Average Measurement: 1.9 x 0.6 x 0.3
Measurement Range: L: 1.6 - 2.1, W: 0.5 - 1, D: 0.2 - 0.5
Shape: Seed narrowly winged at margins, thicker in the middle. Seed face is narrower at hilum end, broadening at opposite side.
Color: Seed coat papery and white, becoming transparent at the center to reveal a red-brown inner seed.
Surface: Finely longitudinally ridged.
Basic Explanations and Assumptions:
The dimensions for the seeds are length x width x depth. The location of the hilum is used as the base of the seed, and the length is measured from hilum to the opposite apex. Where a style is present, the length is measured from the hilum to the bottom of the style. Width is measured at a right angle to the length at the widest part. Depth is measured at a right angle to the intersection of height and width lines.
Measurements included are the mean average for each measurement of ten separate seeds.
All measurements in millimeters unless otherwise noted.
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved from https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=35423
- WTU Herbarium, Burke Museum, & University of Washington. Retrieved from https://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/taxon.php?Taxon=Achillea%20millefolium
- USDA Plants Profile for Achillea millefolium
- Hitchcock, C. L., Cronquist, A., Giblin, D., & Legler, B. et al. (2018). Flora of the Pacific Northwest: an illustrated manual. Seattle: University of Washington Press, p. 534.
- Moore, M. (2011). Medicinal plants of the Pacific West. Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press.