Difference between revisions of "Apocynum androsaemifolium"

From Puget Prairie Plants
(References)
 
(22 intermediate revisions by 4 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
'''Spreading dogbane'''
+
* Scientific Name: ''Apocynum'' ''androsaemifolium''
[[File:APAN_RodGilbert_veg_7-2004.jpg|300px|thumb|right|Photographer: Rod Gilbert]]
+
* Family: Apocynaceae
 
+
* Common Names: flytrap dogbane, spreading dogbane
 
+
* Synonyms/Misapplications: ''Apocynum'' ''ambigens''
===Taxonomy===
+
* Codon: APOAND
Kingdom: Plantae
+
----
*(unranked): Angiosperms
+
[[File:APAN_RodGilbert_veg_7-2004.jpg |thumb|Photo by Rod Gilbert. Also featured on Main Page]]
*(unranked): Eudicots
+
=== Taxonomy ===
*(unranked): Asterids
+
{{Taxobox
*Order: Gentianales
+
| image =
*Family: Apocynaceae
+
| image_caption = Photo by Rod Gilbert. Also featured on Main Page
*Genus: ''Apocynum''
+
| name =
*Species: ''A. androsaemifolium''
+
| regnum = [[Plant]]ae
*Binomial name: ''Apocynum androsaemifolium'' L.
+
| subregnum = Viridiplantae
*Synonyms:      ''Apocynum ambigens'', ''Apocynum pumilum'', ''Apocynum scopulorum''
+
| phylum = Tracheophyta
 
+
| subphylum= Spermatophytina
 +
| classis = Magnoliopsida
 +
| subclassis = Asteranae
 +
| ordo = Gentianales
 +
| familia = Apocynaceae
 +
| genus = ''Apocynum'' L.
 +
| species = '''''Apocynum androsaemifolium''''' L.
 +
| subspecies =
 +
| synonyms = *''Apocynum pumilum'' (A. Gray) Greene
 +
*''Apocynum ambigens'' Greene
 +
*''Apocynum androsaemifolium ssp. androsaemifolium'' L.
 +
*''Apocynum androsaemifolium'' var. ''glabrum'' Macoun
 +
*''Apocynum scopulorum'' Greene ex Rydb.
 +
}}
 +
<ref>Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved from https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=30156</ref>
 
===Plant Description===
 
===Plant Description===
 
A 2-5 ft. widely branching, bushy, perennial with opposite, oval leaves and small groups of tiny, pink, bell-shaped flowers near the branch tips. The flowers’ fragrance is reminiscent of lilac. Numerous small pink, nodding, bell-like flowers, fragrant and striped inside with deeper pink. Milky juice exudes from broken stems and leaves.  
 
A 2-5 ft. widely branching, bushy, perennial with opposite, oval leaves and small groups of tiny, pink, bell-shaped flowers near the branch tips. The flowers’ fragrance is reminiscent of lilac. Numerous small pink, nodding, bell-like flowers, fragrant and striped inside with deeper pink. Milky juice exudes from broken stems and leaves.  
These plants are relatives of the milkweeds. Indian Hemp (''A. cannabinum''), a slightly smaller species with erect clusters of greenish-white flowers, is also found in fields and is poisonous. Clasping-leaved Dogbane (''A. sibiricum''), found widely throughout the Northeast in sandy or gravelly habitats such as stream banks, has stalk-less or nearly stalk-less leaves.
+
These plants are relatives of the milkweeds. Indian Hemp (''A. cannabinum''), a slightly smaller species with erect clusters of greenish-white flowers, is also found in fields and is poisonous. Clasping-leaved Dogbane (''A. sibiricum''), found widely throughout the Northeast in sandy or gravelly habitats such as stream banks, has stalk-less or nearly stalk-less leaves.<ref name=":1">Native Plants of North America. Retrieved from https://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=apan2.</ref>
  
 
===Bloom period===
 
===Bloom period===
June to July.
+
June to September.<ref name=":0">WTU Herbarium, Burke Museum, & University of Washington. Retrieved from  http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/taxon.php?Taxon=Apocynum%20androsaemifolium</ref>
  
 
===Distribution===
 
===Distribution===
Throughout Washington and much of Canada and the United States.
+
Throughout Washington and much of Canada and the United States. More common east of the Cascade crest.<ref name=":0" />
  
 
===Habitat===
 
===Habitat===
Dry open rocky woods, thickets, roadsides in open areas from low to fairly high elevations. Typically found growing in sandy or gravelly, dry soils.
+
Dry open rocky woods, thickets, roadsides in open areas from low to fairly high elevations. Typically found growing in sandy or gravelly, dry soils.<ref name=":0" />
  
 
===Uses===
 
===Uses===
 
====First Nations====
 
====First Nations====
One of the digitalis group of cardiac tonics, apocynum, is the most powerful in slowing the pulse, and its action on the vaso-motor system is also very strong. Being rather irritant to mucous membranes, it may cause nausea and catharsis, so that some cannot tolerate it. It is a powerful hydragogue, helpful in dropsies due to heart-failure, and in the ascites of hepatic cirrhosts has been called the 'vegetable trocar.'
+
One of the digitalis group of cardiac tonics, apocynum, is the most powerful in slowing the pulse, and its action on the vaso-motor system is also very strong. Being rather irritant to mucous membranes, it may cause nausea and catharsis, so that some cannot tolerate it. It is a powerful hydragogue, helpful in dropsies due to heart-failure, and in the ascites of hepatic cirrhosts has been called the 'vegetable trocar.'<ref>Marshall, Manya., Grieve, Maud., Grieve, Margaret. A Modern Herbal, Vol. I. United States: Dover Publications, 1971.</ref>
  
Women of some tribes rolled dogbane stem fibers on their legs to make fine thread, said to be finer and stronger than the best cotton thread. It was used for sewing and for making twine, nets, fabric and bowstrings.
+
Women of some tribes rolled dogbane stem fibers on their legs to make fine thread, said to be finer and stronger than the best cotton thread. It was used for sewing and for making twine, nets, fabric and bowstrings.<ref name=":1" />
  
 
====Other Uses====
 
====Other Uses====
These plants are relatives of the milkweeds. Indian Hemp (''A. cannabinum''), a slightly smaller species with erect clusters of greenish-white flowers, is also found in fields and is poisonous. Clasping-leaved Dogbane (''A. sibiricum''), found widely throughout the Northeast in sandy or gravelly habitats such as stream banks, has stalkless or nearly stalkless leaves. Women of some tribes rolled dogbane stem fibres on their legs to make fine thread, said to be finer and stronger than the best cotton thread. It was used for sewing and for making twine, nets, fabric and bowstrings. The poisonous, acrid sap was said to stimulate hair growth by irritating the follicles, but people with sensitive skin are more likely to develop blisters than hair.
+
These plants are relatives of the milkweeds. Indian Hemp (''A. cannabinum''), a slightly smaller species with erect clusters of greenish-white flowers, is also found in fields and is poisonous. Clasping-leaved Dogbane (''A. sibiricum''), found widely throughout the Northeast in sandy or gravelly habitats such as stream banks, has stalkless or nearly stalkless leaves. Women of some tribes rolled dogbane stem fibres on their legs to make fine thread, said to be finer and stronger than the best cotton thread. It was used for sewing and for making twine, nets, fabric and bowstrings. The poisonous, acrid sap was said to stimulate hair growth by irritating the follicles, but people with sensitive skin are more likely to develop blisters than hair.<ref name=":1" />
  
 
===Propogation===
 
===Propogation===
 
<ref>http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org/network/ViewProtocols.aspx?ProtocolID=1405,1826 |Propagation Protocol from Native Plant Network</ref>
 
<ref>http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org/network/ViewProtocols.aspx?ProtocolID=1405,1826 |Propagation Protocol from Native Plant Network</ref>
[[File:APAN.png|thumb|right|300px|''Apocynum androsaemifolium'' <br/> Photo Credit Lisa Hintz]]
+
[[File:APAN.png|thumb|right|300px|''Apocynum androsaemifolium'' <br /> Photo Credit Lisa Hintz]]
The flowers bloom in June and July. Pods, slender hanging down 7-20cm long. S
+
The flowers bloom in June and July. Pods, slender hanging down 7-20cm long.
  
 
===Seed===
 
===Seed===
'''Abbreviation:''' APAN
 
 
 
'''Seed sample from:''' 2009
 
'''Seed sample from:''' 2009
  
Line 63: Line 75:
 
'''Longitudinal Cross Section:''' elliptical [[File:Apan long.png]]
 
'''Longitudinal Cross Section:''' elliptical [[File:Apan long.png]]
 
{{Basics}}
 
{{Basics}}
==Photo Gallery==
+
 
==References==
+
===Photo Gallery===
</reference>
+
<gallery>
 +
File:APOAND2.jpg|Photo: Craig Althen, 2010
 +
File:APOAND3.png|Photo courtesy of CNLM
 +
</gallery>
 +
 
 +
===References===
 +
<references />

Latest revision as of 22:48, 20 March 2021

  • Scientific Name: Apocynum androsaemifolium
  • Family: Apocynaceae
  • Common Names: flytrap dogbane, spreading dogbane
  • Synonyms/Misapplications: Apocynum ambigens
  • Codon: APOAND

Photo by Rod Gilbert. Also featured on Main Page

Taxonomy

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Subkingdom: Viridiplantae
Phylum: Tracheophyta
Subphylum: Spermatophytina
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Asteranae
Order: Gentianales
Family: Apocynaceae
Genus: Apocynum L.
Species: Apocynum androsaemifolium L.
Synonyms
  • Apocynum pumilum (A. Gray) Greene
  • Apocynum ambigens Greene
  • Apocynum androsaemifolium ssp. androsaemifolium L.
  • Apocynum androsaemifolium var. glabrum Macoun
  • Apocynum scopulorum Greene ex Rydb.

[1]

Plant Description

A 2-5 ft. widely branching, bushy, perennial with opposite, oval leaves and small groups of tiny, pink, bell-shaped flowers near the branch tips. The flowers’ fragrance is reminiscent of lilac. Numerous small pink, nodding, bell-like flowers, fragrant and striped inside with deeper pink. Milky juice exudes from broken stems and leaves. These plants are relatives of the milkweeds. Indian Hemp (A. cannabinum), a slightly smaller species with erect clusters of greenish-white flowers, is also found in fields and is poisonous. Clasping-leaved Dogbane (A. sibiricum), found widely throughout the Northeast in sandy or gravelly habitats such as stream banks, has stalk-less or nearly stalk-less leaves.[2]

Bloom period

June to September.[3]

Distribution

Throughout Washington and much of Canada and the United States. More common east of the Cascade crest.[3]

Habitat

Dry open rocky woods, thickets, roadsides in open areas from low to fairly high elevations. Typically found growing in sandy or gravelly, dry soils.[3]

Uses

First Nations

One of the digitalis group of cardiac tonics, apocynum, is the most powerful in slowing the pulse, and its action on the vaso-motor system is also very strong. Being rather irritant to mucous membranes, it may cause nausea and catharsis, so that some cannot tolerate it. It is a powerful hydragogue, helpful in dropsies due to heart-failure, and in the ascites of hepatic cirrhosts has been called the 'vegetable trocar.'[4]

Women of some tribes rolled dogbane stem fibers on their legs to make fine thread, said to be finer and stronger than the best cotton thread. It was used for sewing and for making twine, nets, fabric and bowstrings.[2]

Other Uses

These plants are relatives of the milkweeds. Indian Hemp (A. cannabinum), a slightly smaller species with erect clusters of greenish-white flowers, is also found in fields and is poisonous. Clasping-leaved Dogbane (A. sibiricum), found widely throughout the Northeast in sandy or gravelly habitats such as stream banks, has stalkless or nearly stalkless leaves. Women of some tribes rolled dogbane stem fibres on their legs to make fine thread, said to be finer and stronger than the best cotton thread. It was used for sewing and for making twine, nets, fabric and bowstrings. The poisonous, acrid sap was said to stimulate hair growth by irritating the follicles, but people with sensitive skin are more likely to develop blisters than hair.[2]

Propogation

[5]

Apocynum androsaemifolium
Photo Credit Lisa Hintz

The flowers bloom in June and July. Pods, slender hanging down 7-20cm long.

Seed

Seed sample from: 2009

Average Measurement: 1.8 x 0.4 x 0.2

Measurement Range: L: 1.2 – 2.1, W: 0.2 – 0.5, D: 0.1 – 0.3

Features

Shape: Narrow at hilum end, and opposite apex. Seed somewhat flattened.

Color: Hilum white against brown seed body.

Surface: Longitudinally ribbed with small glossy globules. Seed lustrous.

Latitudinal Cross Section: elliptical APAN lat.png

Longitudinal Cross Section: elliptical Apan long.png

Basic Explanations and Assumptions:

The dimensions for the seeds are length x width x depth. The location of the hilum is used as the base of the seed, and the length is measured from hilum to the opposite apex. Where a style is present, the length is measured from the hilum to the bottom of the style. Width is measured at a right angle to the length at the widest part. Depth is measured at a right angle to the intersection of height and width lines.

Measurements included are the mean average for each measurement of ten separate seeds.

All measurements in millimeters unless otherwise noted.

Photo Gallery

References

  1. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved from https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=30156
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Native Plants of North America. Retrieved from https://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=apan2.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 WTU Herbarium, Burke Museum, & University of Washington. Retrieved from  http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/taxon.php?Taxon=Apocynum%20androsaemifolium
  4. Marshall, Manya., Grieve, Maud., Grieve, Margaret. A Modern Herbal, Vol. I. United States: Dover Publications, 1971.
  5. http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org/network/ViewProtocols.aspx?ProtocolID=1405,1826 |Propagation Protocol from Native Plant Network