Difference between revisions of "Delphinium menziesii"

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[[File:DEME pic.png|thumb|right|300px|''Delphinium menziesii'' seeds </br> Photo Credit Lisa Hintz]]
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* Scientific Name: ''Delphinium'' ''menziesii''
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* Family: Ranunculaceae
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* Common Names: Menzie's larkspur
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* Codon: DELMEN
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[[File: DEME RodGilbert veg 2004.jpg |thumb|Photo by Rod Gilbert, 2004. Featured on Main Page]]
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=== Taxonomy ===
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{{Taxobox
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| name =
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| image =
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| image_alt = Delphinium menziesii
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| image_caption = Image by Rod Gilbert, 2004. Featured on Main Page
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| regnum = [[Plant]]ae
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| subregnum = Viridiplantae
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| phylum = Tracheophyta
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| subphylum= Spermatophytina
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| classis = Magnoliopsida
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| subclassis = Magnoliidae
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| ordo = Ranunculales
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| familia = Ranunculaceae
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| genus = ''Delphinium'' L.
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| species = '''''Delphinium menziesii''''' DC.
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| binomial =
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| binomial_authority =
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| synonyms = *''Delphinium menziesii'' ssp. ''menziesii''  DC.
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*''Delphinium menziesii'' ssp. ''pallidum''  M.J. Warnock
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}}
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<ref>Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved from https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=18478</ref>
  
===The Seed===
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===Description===
'''Abbreviation''' – DEME
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Perennial from tuberous, clustered roots and usually less than 50 cm high. The stem is single and very slender usually with very fine hairs.
  
Seed sample from 2009
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Leaves are stalked and are mostly on the stems with the longest stalks on the few basal leaves and becoming shorter as they grow farther up the stem. The main leaf blades are two or three times palmately divided into narrowly oblong to wedge-shaped segments.
  
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Flowers are violet with the uppermost of the five petals being modified into a pronounced hollow spur. The petals are shallowly notched, ruffled, veined and wavy-edged. The upper two petals are often white. The lower flower-pedicals are usually much longer than the flowers. The flowers occur in 3-20 open, loose simple to branched terminal clusters.<ref>Pojar, J., & MacKinnon, A. (1994) ''Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast''. Lone Pine Publishing.</ref>
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===Bloom Period===
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April to July<ref name=":0">WTU Herbarium, Burke Museum, & University of Washington. Retrieved from https://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/taxon.php?Taxon=Delphinium%20menziesii</ref>
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===Distribution===
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Chiefly west of the Cascades, British Columbia to California; occasional east of the Cascades in Washington.<ref>WTU Herbarium, Burke Museum, & University of Washington. Retrieved from http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/browse.php?Genus=Delphinium</ref>
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===Habitat===
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Coastal bluffs and prairies to moist meadows and forest openings at moderate elevations in the mountains.<ref name=":0" /> Delphinium menziesii occurs in rich well drained soils and full sun.<ref name=":1">Plants for a Future. Retrieved from https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Delphinium+menziesii</ref>
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===Uses===
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POISONOUS PARTS: All parts. Highly Toxic; May be Fatal if eaten. Symptoms include burning of lips and mouth, numbness of throat; intense vomiting and diarrhea, muscular weakness and spasms, weak pulse, paralysis of the respiratory system, convulsions. Toxic Principle: Alkaloids delphinine, ajacine, and others. (Poisonous Plants of N.C.).  Inhibits the growth of nearby plants, especially legumes.<ref name=":1" />
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The First Nations have recorded uses of Dephinium menziesii as a poultice of the stalks and roots that has been applied to sores. A parasiticide is obtained from the leaves. It is quite toxic and so is for external use only. A blue dye can be obtained from the flowers.<ref>Native American Ethnobotany Database. Retrieved from http://naeb.brit.org/uses/search/?string=delphinium+menziesii</ref>
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Gardeners purport that this plant is an attractant and pollinated by hummingbirds, butterflies and bumblebees.<ref>Walama Restoration Project. Retrieved from https://walamarestoration.org/wp-content/uploaded/Fall-12-Newsletter-pdf.pdf</ref>
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===Propagation===
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Sow seeds in March/April in a cold frame or May outdoors. Keep moist and in a shady position until germination takes place. The seed has a limited viability so it should be stored in a sealed container at about 3°c. Temperatures above 15°c inhibit germination. The seed usually germinates in 2 - 9 weeks at 15°c. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in the summer. Cuttings of basal shoots in April/May, taken before they become hollow at the base, and planted in a cold frame. Division in spring or early autumn.<ref name=":1" />
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===Seed===
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Seed sample from 2009
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[[File:DEME pic.png|thumb|right|300px|''Delphinium menziesii'' seeds <br> Photo Credit Lisa Hintz]]
 
====Features====
 
====Features====
 
'''Average measurement''': 1.9 x 1.2 x 1
 
'''Average measurement''': 1.9 x 1.2 x 1
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{{Basics}}
 
{{Basics}}
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===Photo Gallery===
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<gallery>
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File:DEME RodGilbert flw 2004.jpg|Photo: Rod Gibert, 2004.
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File:DELMEN3.jpg|Photo:Ben Legler, 2004. Dehiscent follicle
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File: DELMEN4.jpg|Seedling, courtesy CNLM
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</gallery>
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===References===
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*[http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=DEME plants.usda.gov-''Delphinium menziesii'']
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<references />

Latest revision as of 11:08, 29 March 2021

  • Scientific Name: Delphinium menziesii
  • Family: Ranunculaceae
  • Common Names: Menzie's larkspur
  • Codon: DELMEN

Photo by Rod Gilbert, 2004. Featured on Main Page

Taxonomy

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Subkingdom: Viridiplantae
Phylum: Tracheophyta
Subphylum: Spermatophytina
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Magnoliidae
Order: Ranunculales
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus: Delphinium L.
Species: Delphinium menziesii DC.
Synonyms
  • Delphinium menziesii ssp. menziesii DC.
  • Delphinium menziesii ssp. pallidum M.J. Warnock

[1]

Description

Perennial from tuberous, clustered roots and usually less than 50 cm high. The stem is single and very slender usually with very fine hairs.

Leaves are stalked and are mostly on the stems with the longest stalks on the few basal leaves and becoming shorter as they grow farther up the stem. The main leaf blades are two or three times palmately divided into narrowly oblong to wedge-shaped segments.

Flowers are violet with the uppermost of the five petals being modified into a pronounced hollow spur. The petals are shallowly notched, ruffled, veined and wavy-edged. The upper two petals are often white. The lower flower-pedicals are usually much longer than the flowers. The flowers occur in 3-20 open, loose simple to branched terminal clusters.[2]

Bloom Period

April to July[3]

Distribution

Chiefly west of the Cascades, British Columbia to California; occasional east of the Cascades in Washington.[4]

Habitat

Coastal bluffs and prairies to moist meadows and forest openings at moderate elevations in the mountains.[3] Delphinium menziesii occurs in rich well drained soils and full sun.[5]

Uses

POISONOUS PARTS: All parts. Highly Toxic; May be Fatal if eaten. Symptoms include burning of lips and mouth, numbness of throat; intense vomiting and diarrhea, muscular weakness and spasms, weak pulse, paralysis of the respiratory system, convulsions. Toxic Principle: Alkaloids delphinine, ajacine, and others. (Poisonous Plants of N.C.). Inhibits the growth of nearby plants, especially legumes.[5]

The First Nations have recorded uses of Dephinium menziesii as a poultice of the stalks and roots that has been applied to sores. A parasiticide is obtained from the leaves. It is quite toxic and so is for external use only. A blue dye can be obtained from the flowers.[6]

Gardeners purport that this plant is an attractant and pollinated by hummingbirds, butterflies and bumblebees.[7]

Propagation

Sow seeds in March/April in a cold frame or May outdoors. Keep moist and in a shady position until germination takes place. The seed has a limited viability so it should be stored in a sealed container at about 3°c. Temperatures above 15°c inhibit germination. The seed usually germinates in 2 - 9 weeks at 15°c. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in the summer. Cuttings of basal shoots in April/May, taken before they become hollow at the base, and planted in a cold frame. Division in spring or early autumn.[5]

Seed

Seed sample from 2009

Delphinium menziesii seeds
Photo Credit Lisa Hintz

Features

Average measurement: 1.9 x 1.2 x 1

Measurement range: L: 1.5 – 2.3, W: 1.1 – 1.3, D: 0.9 x 1.2

Latitudinal cross section: obovate DEME lat new.png

Longitudinal cross section: elliptical DEME long.png

Seeds dark brown in a roomy, clear/white seed coat that bunches around hilum and seed edges. Bagginess of seed coat sometimes gives the seed a winged appearance.

Seed coat very finely longitudinal striate and glossy.

Basic Explanations and Assumptions:

The dimensions for the seeds are length x width x depth. The location of the hilum is used as the base of the seed, and the length is measured from hilum to the opposite apex. Where a style is present, the length is measured from the hilum to the bottom of the style. Width is measured at a right angle to the length at the widest part. Depth is measured at a right angle to the intersection of height and width lines.

Measurements included are the mean average for each measurement of ten separate seeds.

All measurements in millimeters unless otherwise noted.

Photo Gallery

References

  1. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved from https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=18478
  2. Pojar, J., & MacKinnon, A. (1994) Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Lone Pine Publishing.
  3. 3.0 3.1 WTU Herbarium, Burke Museum, & University of Washington. Retrieved from https://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/taxon.php?Taxon=Delphinium%20menziesii
  4. WTU Herbarium, Burke Museum, & University of Washington. Retrieved from http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/browse.php?Genus=Delphinium
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Plants for a Future. Retrieved from https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Delphinium+menziesii
  6. Native American Ethnobotany Database. Retrieved from http://naeb.brit.org/uses/search/?string=delphinium+menziesii
  7. Walama Restoration Project. Retrieved from https://walamarestoration.org/wp-content/uploaded/Fall-12-Newsletter-pdf.pdf