Difference between revisions of "Elymus glaucus"

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''Elymus glaucus'', also called blue wildrye. [[Other names: (English, First People's, etc.)]] is a native perennial bunchgrass found in the Puget Prairie ecosystem, belonging to poaceae, the grass family.  
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* Scientific Name: ''Elymus'' ''glaucus''
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* Family: Poaceae
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* Common Names: blue wild-rye
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* Codon: ELYGLA
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----
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[[File:ELYGLA1.jpg |thumb|Photo by Richard Old. Also featured on Main Page.]]
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===Taxonomy===
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{{Taxobox
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| name =
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| image =
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| image_caption = Photo by Richard Old. Also featured on Main Page.
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| regnum = [[Plant]]ae
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| subregnum = Viridiplantae
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| phylum = Tracheophyta
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| subphylum= Spermatophytina
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| classis = Magnoliopsida
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| subclassis = Lilianae
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| ordo = Poales
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| familia = Poaceae
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| genus = ''Elymus'' L.
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| species = '''''Elymus Glaucus''''' Buckley
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| synonyms = *''Elymus americanus'' Vasey & Scribn. ex Cassidy
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*''Elymus angustifolius'' Burtt Davy
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*''Elymus hispidulus'' Burtt Davy
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*''Elymus marginalis'' Rydb.
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*''Elymus nitidus'' Vasey
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*''Elymus petersonii'' Rydb.
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}}
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<ref>Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved from https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=40684</ref>
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===Description===
  
==Taxonomy==
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Tufted perennial bunchgrass with terminal spikes, growing to 100 cm tall.<ref name=":1">Bowcutt, F., &
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Hamman, S. (2016). ''Vascular Plants''
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of the South Sound Prairies''. p. 124.''</ref> Stems erect, few per plant.<ref name=":0">USDA NRCS Plant Guide. Retrieved from https://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_elgl.pdf</ref> Few basal leaves, cauline leaf sheaths open,<ref name=":1" /> pubescent or glabrous<ref name=":2" />; culms and leaf blades often glabrous;<ref name=":1" /> ligules 1 mm, marginally haired.<ref name=":2" /> Inflorescences with two spikelets at each node.<ref name=":1" /> Spikelets usually with 2-6 flowers; articulation point above the glumes; glumes equal or nearly so, flattened, awns 0-9 mm,<ref>Hitchcock, C. L., Cronquist, A., Giblin, D.,
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& Legler, B. et al. (2018). ''Flora of the Pacific Northwest: an''
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illustrated manual''. Seattle: University of Washington Press. pp. 791-793.''</ref> 3 to 5-nerved, narrowly lanceolate and membranous;<ref name=":2" /> lemmas awned, often glabrous, 10-12 mm long; paleas nearly equal to lemmas.<ref name=":2" />
  
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===Bloom Period===
  
*'''Kingdom''' Plantae – Plants <br>
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June - August<ref name=":2">WTU Herbarium, Burke Museum, & University of Washington. Retrieved from https://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/taxon.php?Taxon=Elymus%20glaucus</ref>
*'''Subkingdom''' Tracheobionta – Vascular plants  <br>
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*'''Superdivision''' Spermatophyta – Seed plants <br>
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*'''Division''' Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants <br>
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*'''Class''' Liliopsida – Monocotyledons <br>
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*'''Subclass''' Commelinidae <br>
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*'''Order''' Cyperales <br>
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*'''Family''' Poaceae – Grass family <br>
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*'''Genus''' Elymus L. – wildrye <br>
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*'''Species''' Elymus glaucus Buckley – blue wildrye <br>
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*'''Subspecies'''  ''Elymus glaucus'' Buckley ssp. ''glaucus'' – blue wildrye
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==Description==
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===Distribution===
  
Blue wildrye is a large perennial bunchgrass. It is very tall (up to 5 feet) with an upright growth habit and just a few stems per plant. It is similar in stature and growth habit to slender wheatgrass. The leaf blades are thin and flat, ranging from 4-12mm (.2-.5 inch) wide. Leaf color changes from green to blue green, with a white waxy coating. Frosts induce dormancy.
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Alaska to California, east to the Midwest.<ref name=":2" />
  
[[Image:220px-Elymus glaucus.jpg|250px|thumb|right|''Elymus glaucus'' in Teton Co., Wyoming, USA <br/>
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===Habitat===
Date 4 September 2010 <br/>
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Author: Matt Lavin <br/>
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<br/>
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This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license.]]
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==Bloom Period==
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Open prairies, chaparral, meadows and forests with well-drained soils. High drought tolerance, disturbance adapted.<ref name=":0" />
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===Uses===
  
May-July
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'''Site Rehabilitation''': A desirable species for use in erosion control. Blue wildrye is good for streambank restoration, meadow and swale seeding. It is also excellent for reseeding burned or disturbed areas in oak woodland or forest.  Blue wildrye is not recommended to be seeded alone in revegetation plantings, and it should not make up more than 50% of the seed mix.<ref name=":0" />
  
==Distribution==
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'''Wildlife''': Blue wildrye can also provide excellent wildlife habitat for mammals, birds, and waterfowl. It provides good forage early in the season, but later, may be too coarse and stemmy.<ref name=":0" />
  
Blue wildrye is found from California to Alaska and also the Great Plains and northern Mexico. Check a reputable database for current distribution.  
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'''Landscaping''': The attractive, blue-green foliage adds value to commercial landscaping projects.<ref name=":0" />
  
==Habitat==
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'''First Nations''': Blue wildrye has similar uses as creeping wild rye, primarily as a cereal grain. It is less desirable for basketry as the nodes are thick, but this does not exclude its use in some baskets. Similar to creeping wildrye, there may be some ceremonial uses of blue wildrye.<ref name=":0" />
  
Open areas, native prairie, chaparral, woodland and forest. Blue wildrye is tolerant of partial shade and soil textures ranging from loam to clay, moist to dry, and well-drained soils. Low moisture use – high drought tolerance.
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===Propagation===
 
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This plant has demonstrated moderate sensitivity to saline soils.
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Its successional Status is that blue wildrye is typically favored by disturbance.
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==Uses==
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'''Site Rehabilitation''': A desirable species for use in erosion control. Blue wildrye is good for streambank restoration, meadow and swale seeding. It is also excellent for reseeding burned or disturbed areas in oak woodland or forest.  Blue wildrye is not recommended to be seeded alone in revegetation plantings, and it should not make up more than 50% of the seed mix.
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'''Wildlife''': Blue wildrye can also provide excellent wildlife habitat for mammals, birds, and waterfowl. It provides good forage early in the season, but later, may be too coarse and stemmy.
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'''Landscaping''': The attractive, blue-green foliage adds value to commercial landscaping projects.
+
 
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'''First Nations''': Blue wildrye has similar uses as creeping wild rye, primarily as a cereal grain. It is less desirable for basketry as the nodes are thick, but this does not exclude its use in some baskets. Similar to creeping wildrye, there may be some ceremonial uses of blue wildrye.
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==Propagation==
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see Plant Materials Technical Note No. 17, from USDA in Portland, OR to Natural Resources Conservation Service ([[Media:ElGl USDA Seed Increase.pdf|"Seed Production of Blue Wildrye"]], April 1996)
 
see Plant Materials Technical Note No. 17, from USDA in Portland, OR to Natural Resources Conservation Service ([[Media:ElGl USDA Seed Increase.pdf|"Seed Production of Blue Wildrye"]], April 1996)
  
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[https://npn.rngr.net/npn/propagation/protocols/poaceae-elymus-1245/?searchterm=Elymus%20glaucus Native Plant Network Propagation Protocol]
 
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[[File:ELGL_LisaHintz_sd_2012.jpg|300px|thumb|right|''Elymus glaucus'' seeds, image by Lisa Hintz, taken at the Evergreen State College Olympia Campus.]]
[[File:Elgl_003_php.jpg|300px|thumb|right|''Elymus glaucus'' seeds, image by Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database.]]
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===Seed===
==Seed==
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'''Abbreviation:''' ELGL
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'''Seed sample from:''' 2010
 
'''Seed sample from:''' 2010
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'''Longitudinal Cross Section:''' elliptical  [[File:ELGL long.png]]
 
'''Longitudinal Cross Section:''' elliptical  [[File:ELGL long.png]]
  
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=== Photo Gallery ===
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<gallery>
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File: ELIGLA3.jpg|Photo by Robert L. Carr
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</gallery>
  
==References==
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===References===
  
  
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[[Category:Poaceae]]
 
[[Category:Poaceae]]
 
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<references />
 
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=====Image Gallery=====
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<gallery>
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Image:220px-Elymus glaucus.jpg
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Latest revision as of 10:54, 29 June 2021

  • Scientific Name: Elymus glaucus
  • Family: Poaceae
  • Common Names: blue wild-rye
  • Codon: ELYGLA

Photo by Richard Old. Also featured on Main Page.

Taxonomy

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Subkingdom: Viridiplantae
Phylum: Tracheophyta
Subphylum: Spermatophytina
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Lilianae
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Elymus L.
Species: Elymus Glaucus Buckley
Synonyms
  • Elymus americanus Vasey & Scribn. ex Cassidy
  • Elymus angustifolius Burtt Davy
  • Elymus hispidulus Burtt Davy
  • Elymus marginalis Rydb.
  • Elymus nitidus Vasey
  • Elymus petersonii Rydb.

[1]

Description

Tufted perennial bunchgrass with terminal spikes, growing to 100 cm tall.[2] Stems erect, few per plant.[3] Few basal leaves, cauline leaf sheaths open,[2] pubescent or glabrous[4]; culms and leaf blades often glabrous;[2] ligules 1 mm, marginally haired.[4] Inflorescences with two spikelets at each node.[2] Spikelets usually with 2-6 flowers; articulation point above the glumes; glumes equal or nearly so, flattened, awns 0-9 mm,[5] 3 to 5-nerved, narrowly lanceolate and membranous;[4] lemmas awned, often glabrous, 10-12 mm long; paleas nearly equal to lemmas.[4]

Bloom Period

June - August[4]

Distribution

Alaska to California, east to the Midwest.[4]

Habitat

Open prairies, chaparral, meadows and forests with well-drained soils. High drought tolerance, disturbance adapted.[3]

Uses

Site Rehabilitation: A desirable species for use in erosion control. Blue wildrye is good for streambank restoration, meadow and swale seeding. It is also excellent for reseeding burned or disturbed areas in oak woodland or forest. Blue wildrye is not recommended to be seeded alone in revegetation plantings, and it should not make up more than 50% of the seed mix.[3]

Wildlife: Blue wildrye can also provide excellent wildlife habitat for mammals, birds, and waterfowl. It provides good forage early in the season, but later, may be too coarse and stemmy.[3]

Landscaping: The attractive, blue-green foliage adds value to commercial landscaping projects.[3]

First Nations: Blue wildrye has similar uses as creeping wild rye, primarily as a cereal grain. It is less desirable for basketry as the nodes are thick, but this does not exclude its use in some baskets. Similar to creeping wildrye, there may be some ceremonial uses of blue wildrye.[3]

Propagation

see Plant Materials Technical Note No. 17, from USDA in Portland, OR to Natural Resources Conservation Service ("Seed Production of Blue Wildrye", April 1996)

Native Plant Network Propagation Protocol

Elymus glaucus seeds, image by Lisa Hintz, taken at the Evergreen State College Olympia Campus.

Seed

Seed sample from: 2010

Average Measurement including husk and awn: 29.8 x 1.2 x 0.9

Measurement Range including husk and awn: L: 22 – 35, W: 1 – 1.5, D: 0.5 – 1

Average Measurement without husk or awn: 5.3 x 1 x 1

Measurement Range without husk or awn: L: 5 - 5.5, W: 0.9 – 1.1, D: 0.9 – 1

Features

Shape: Awn is straight and is 5 – 6 times as long as seed body. Awn is very finely toothed.

Other Structures: Inner seed has deep longitudinal sulcus on one side and a few fine longitudinal lines on the opposite seed face.

Color: Husks off white to tan, papillose with a slight sheen. Hilium is a darker brown color. Seed is tan at the ends, and blue to green in the middle.

Surface: Seed surface is smooth and matte.

Latitudinal Cross Section: elliptical ELGL lat.png

Longitudinal Cross Section: elliptical ELGL long.png

Photo Gallery

References

  • USDA, NRCS. 2012. Elymus glaucus Buckley ssp. glaucus – blue wildrye USDA PLANTS Profile, PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=elgl, 7 May 2012). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA. Retrieved 05/14/2012.
  1. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved from https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=40684
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Bowcutt, F., & Hamman, S. (2016). Vascular Plants of the South Sound Prairies. p. 124.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 USDA NRCS Plant Guide. Retrieved from https://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_elgl.pdf
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 WTU Herbarium, Burke Museum, & University of Washington. Retrieved from https://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/taxon.php?Taxon=Elymus%20glaucus
  5. Hitchcock, C. L., Cronquist, A., Giblin, D., & Legler, B. et al. (2018). Flora of the Pacific Northwest: an illustrated manual. Seattle: University of Washington Press. pp. 791-793.