Difference between revisions of "Lithophragma parviflorum"

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'''Common name:''' small-flowered woodland star or small-flowered prairie star  
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* Latin Name: ''Lithophragma'' ''parviflorum''
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* Family: Saxifragaceae
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* Common Names: small-flowered prairie star, small-flowered woodland star
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* Synonyms/Misapplications: ''Lithophragma'' ''parviflora, Tellima'' ''parviflora''
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* Codon: LITPAR
  
'''Abbreviation Code (Codon):''' LIPA
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=== Taxonomy ===
===Taxonomy===
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{{Taxobox
----
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| image = LITPAR1.jpg
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| image_caption = Photo by Ray Izumi, 2010, also featured on Main Page
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| name = '''''Lithophragma parviflorum'''''
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| regnum = [[Plant]]ae
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| subregnum = Tracheobionta
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| phylum = Spermatophyta
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| subphylum= Magnoliophyta
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| classis = Magnoliopsida
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| subclassis = Saxifraganae
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| ordo = Saxifragales
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| familia = Saxifragaceae
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| genus = '''''Lithophragma''''' (Nutt.) Torr & A. Gray
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| species = ''''' Lithophragma parviflorum''''' (Hook.) Nutt.
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| subspecies =  
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}}
  
'''Kingdom''': Plantae
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===Description===
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Perennial herbs from rhizomes with small bulblets, densely hairy throughout.<ref name=":0">Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2020. ''E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of
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British Columbia'' [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis,
 +
Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed: 2020-06-08 12:03:17 PM ]</ref>
  
'''Order''': Saxifragales
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Overall leaf shape orbicular to reniform, leaves 3-5 times palmately divided nearly to the base, then again lobed 2-3 times.<ref name=":0" />
  
'''Family''': Saxifragaceae
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Inflorescence a raceme, corolla consisting of 5 petals, which are generally 3-lobed.  Calyx at anthesis is vase-shaped, ovary at least 2/3 inferior. Stamens 10. Stigmas have a narrow ring of hair just below tip.<ref name=":1">Hitchcock, C. L., Cronquist, A., Giblin, D., & Legler,
 +
B. et al. (2018). ''Flora of the Pacific Northwest: an illustrated manual''.
 +
Seattle: University of Washington Press.</ref>
  
'''Genus''': ''Lithophragma''
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Plants along the coast in Washington and Oregon appear to have distinctly purple- and pink-tinged petals.<ref>''Starflower Habitat Education Activities and Resources''. Washington Native Plant Society. <nowiki>https://www.wnps.org/starflower#landscape</nowiki>.</ref>
  
'''Species''': ''parviflorum''
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3-beaked capsule, bearing seeds which are smooth or slightly wrinkled to reticulate, but never with prickles.<ref name=":1" />
===Description===
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----
 
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'''General''': Glandular-pubescent perennial from slender rhizomes bearing numerous rice-grain bulblets, the stems 10-30 cm. tall, often purplish- or grayish-tinged above.
 
'''Leaves''': Leaves mostly basal, with petioles 2-6 cm. long, the blades 1-3 cm. broad, usually cleft to the base into 5 wedge-shaped segments that are bi-ternately to ternately cleft and lobed; cauline leaves 2, sub-sessile, cleft into narrower segments.
 
'''Flowers''': Inflorescence a congested raceme at first, becoming up to 15 cm. long, 5- to 11-flowered; calyx obconic, 4-6 mm. long, the 5 lobes triangular-ovate, 1-2 mm. long and broad; petals white to pinkish, 5-10 mm. long, obovate with a wedge-shaped base, digitally 3-cleft, narrowed abruptly to a short, slender claw.
 
'''Fruit''': Ovary nearly completely inferior; carpels 3.
 
  
 
===Bloom Period===
 
===Bloom Period===
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April-June.<ref name=":2">WTU Herbarium, Burke Museum,
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& University of Washington. Retrieved from <nowiki>https://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/taxon.php?Taxon=Lithophragma%20parviflorum</nowiki></ref>
 
----
 
----
 
===Distribution===
 
===Distribution===
 +
BC southward, on both sides of Cascades, to northern California, east to Alberta, the Dakotas, and Colorado.<ref name=":1" />
 
----
 
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Both sides of the Cascades, British Columbia to California, east to the Dakotas and Colorado
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===Habitat===
 
===Habitat===
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Prairies, balds, grasslands, sagebrush desert, and open forest, sea level to mid-elevations.<ref name=":2" />
Prairies, sagebrush desert and forest openings, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains
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===Uses===
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----
 
----
 
===Propagation===
 
===Propagation===
 +
Seeds should be planted in late summer or fall following their collection. Long term seed storage is not recommended. Can be grown by seed or bulblet. Plants go dormant immediately after seed matures. No stratification processes are needed.<ref>Flora-Tostado, M. (2010, May 21). ''Plant Propagation Protocol for Lithophragma parviflorum''. UW Courses: ESRM 412 – Native Plant Production.</ref>
 
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'''Longitudinal''' Cross Section: elliptical [[File:LIPA long.png]]
 
'''Longitudinal''' Cross Section: elliptical [[File:LIPA long.png]]
===Resouces===
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 +
=== Photo Gallery ===
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<gallery>
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File:LITPAR2.jpg|  Photo by Ben Legler, 2003
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File:LITPAR3.jpg|Photo by Bud Kovalchik
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</gallery>
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===Resources===
 
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http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php
 
http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=LIPA5
 
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=LIPA5
 
http://www.wnps.org/landscaping/herbarium/pages/lithophragma-parviflorum.html
 

Latest revision as of 23:57, 8 June 2020

  • Latin Name: Lithophragma parviflorum
  • Family: Saxifragaceae
  • Common Names: small-flowered prairie star, small-flowered woodland star
  • Synonyms/Misapplications: Lithophragma parviflora, Tellima parviflora
  • Codon: LITPAR

Taxonomy

Lithophragma parviflorum
Photo by Ray Izumi, 2010, also featured on Main Page
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta
Phylum: Spermatophyta
Subphylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Saxifraganae
Order: Saxifragales
Family: Saxifragaceae
Genus: Lithophragma (Nutt.) Torr & A. Gray
Species: Lithophragma parviflorum (Hook.) Nutt.

Description

Perennial herbs from rhizomes with small bulblets, densely hairy throughout.[1]

Overall leaf shape orbicular to reniform, leaves 3-5 times palmately divided nearly to the base, then again lobed 2-3 times.[1]

Inflorescence a raceme, corolla consisting of 5 petals, which are generally 3-lobed. Calyx at anthesis is vase-shaped, ovary at least 2/3 inferior. Stamens 10. Stigmas have a narrow ring of hair just below tip.[2]

Plants along the coast in Washington and Oregon appear to have distinctly purple- and pink-tinged petals.[3]

3-beaked capsule, bearing seeds which are smooth or slightly wrinkled to reticulate, but never with prickles.[2]


Bloom Period

April-June.[4]


Distribution

BC southward, on both sides of Cascades, to northern California, east to Alberta, the Dakotas, and Colorado.[2]


Habitat

Prairies, balds, grasslands, sagebrush desert, and open forest, sea level to mid-elevations.[4]


Propagation

Seeds should be planted in late summer or fall following their collection. Long term seed storage is not recommended. Can be grown by seed or bulblet. Plants go dormant immediately after seed matures. No stratification processes are needed.[5]


Seed

Seed sample from: 2010

Average Measurement: 0.5 x 0.3 x 0.2

Measurement Range: L: 0.3 - 0.6, W: 0.1 - 0.3, D: 0.1 - 0.6

Features

Shape: Seeds very small, hilum puckered, and located at tapered end of seed. Opposite apex also tapered.

Color: Seeds dark brown, and almost black at ridges and wrinkles.

Surface: Seeds have at least one major ridge that extends longitudinally from hilum to opposite apex. Seeds may have some other longitudinal ridging and wrinkling. Seeds very shiny, smooth, and iridescent.

Latitudinal Cross Section: elliptical LIPA lat.png

Longitudinal Cross Section: elliptical LIPA long.png

Photo Gallery

Resources


  1. 1.0 1.1 Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2020. E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed: 2020-06-08 12:03:17 PM ]
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Hitchcock, C. L., Cronquist, A., Giblin, D., & Legler, B. et al. (2018). Flora of the Pacific Northwest: an illustrated manual. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  3. Starflower Habitat Education Activities and Resources. Washington Native Plant Society. https://www.wnps.org/starflower#landscape.
  4. 4.0 4.1 WTU Herbarium, Burke Museum, & University of Washington. Retrieved from https://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/taxon.php?Taxon=Lithophragma%20parviflorum
  5. Flora-Tostado, M. (2010, May 21). Plant Propagation Protocol for Lithophragma parviflorum. UW Courses: ESRM 412 – Native Plant Production.