Difference between revisions of "Marah oregana"

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[[File:MAOR BenLegler veg avg.jpg|thumb|300px|By Ben Leger|]]
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* Scientific Name: ''Marah'' ''oregana''
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* Family: Cucurbitaceae
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* Common Names: coastal manroot, wild cucumber
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* Synonyms/Misapplications: ''Echinocystis oregana,  Marah oreganus, Sicyos oregana, Megarrhiza oregana, Micrampelis<br> oregana''
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* Codon: MARORE
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----
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[[File:MARORE1.jpg |thumb|Photo by Rod Gilbert, also featured on Main Page]]
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=== Taxonomy ===
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{{Taxobox
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| image =
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| image_caption = Photo by Rod Gilbert, also featured on Main Page
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| name =
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| regnum = [[Plant]]ae
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| subregnum = Viridiplantae
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| phylum = Tracheophyta
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| subphylum= Spermatophytina
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| classis = Magnoliopsida
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| subclassis = Rosanae
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| ordo = Cucurbitales
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| familia = Cucurbitaceae
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| genus = ''Marah'' Kellogg
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| species = '''''Marah oregana''''' (Torr. & A. Gray) Howell
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| synonyms = *''Marah oreganus'' (Torr. & A. Gray) Howell
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*''Echinocystis oregana'' (Torr. & A. Gray) Cogn.
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*''Sicyos oreganus'' Torr. & A. Gray
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*''Megarrhiza oregana'' (Torr. & A. Gray) S. Watson
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}}
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<ref>Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved from https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=847533</ref>
  
===Plant===
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===Description===
Description1:
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Native perennial, trailing or climbing with tendrils.
  
General: Perennial vine from a large woody root; stems herbaceous, leafy, bearing tendrils.
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Leaves are alternate, palmately lobed, rough and hairy, and cordate at the base.
  
Leaves: Alternate, to 20 cm long, shallowly lobed and cordate at base.
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Flowers are unisexual, corolla campanulate and white, monoecious.
  
Flowers: White, 6-12 mm across with 5 flaring lobes (or sometimes 6-8); male flowers in racemes, female flowers mostly single in axil at base of racemes.
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The bladder-like fruits are sparsely to densely covered with flexible prickles that harden with age, dehiscent at apex when dry. <ref>Bowcutt, F., & Hamman, Sarah. (2016). ''Vascular plants''
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of the South Sound prairies'' (First ed.). Olympia, Washington: The Evergreen''
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State College Press.</ref>
  
Fruit: Green, weakly spiny, inflated gourd-like fruits 3-8 cm long with several large seeds inside.
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Name comes from Hebrew ''marah'', bitter, from the intensely bitter root.<ref name=":0">Hitchcock, C. L., Cronquist, A., Giblin, D., & Legler,
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B. et al. (2018). ''Flora of the Pacific Northwest: an illustrated manual''.
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Seattle: University of Washington Press.</ref>
  
Description 2:
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===Bloom Period===
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April-June<ref>WTU Herbarium, Burke Museum,
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& University of Washington. Retrieved from <nowiki>https://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/taxon.php?Taxon=Marah%20oregana</nowiki></ref>
  
Western Wild Cucumber is a member of the cucumber family (family Cucurbitaceae). Cucumbers are herbs, often trailing or climbing by coiled tendrils.
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===Distribution===
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Southwestern BC southwards, west of Cascade-Sierran acis, to northern California, eastwards in Columbia River Gorge, northeast Oregon, and rarely Hells Canyon. <ref name=":0" />
  
===First Nations===
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===Habitat===
Chehalis Drug (Dermatological Aid) - Salve of root ash and grease applied to scrofula sores.
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Bottomlands and open slopes at low elevations.<ref name=":0" />
 
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Karok Drug (Dermatological Aid) - Poultice of roots applied to bruises and boils. Mendocino Indian Drug (Antirheumatic
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(External)) - Seeds and roots used for rheumatism or root rubbed on rheumatic joints.
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Mendocino Indian Drug (Dermatological Aid) - Root rubbed on rheumatic joints, boils and swellings.
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Mendocino Indian Drug (Poison) - Roots and seeds considered poisonous.
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Mendocino Indian Drug (Urinary Aid) - Seeds eaten for urinary troubles.
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Mendocino Indian Drug (Venereal Aid) - Seeds and roots used for rheumatism and venereal disease.
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Paiute Drug (Eye Medicine) - Decoction of peeled, sliced and dried root used for "sore eyes."
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Squaxin Drug (Analgesic) - Infusion of smashed stalks used as a soak for aching hands.
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Yurok Food (Beverage) - Young shoots and Polypodium rhizomes used to make tea.
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Mendocino Indian Other (Hunting & Fishing Item) - Roots formerly used as fish poison.
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Yurok Other (Toys & Games) - Fruit used by children to construct representations of animals by inserting twigs.
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Yurok Other (Toys & Games) - Fruit tossed by children at one another in play.
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===Other===
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Look for the mostly 5-lobed white flowers and inflated gourd-like fruits. Compare with grapes (family Vitaceae) which have woody stems and more mumerous minute unshowy flowers. Look for the mostly 5-lobed white flowers and inflated gourd-like fruits. Compare with grapes (family Vitaceae) which have woody stems and more mumerous minute unshowy flowers.
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===Uses ===
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Squaxin use of an infusion of smashed stalks as a soak for sore hands, plant considered poisonous.<ref>Native American Ethnobotany Database. Retrieved from <nowiki>http://naeb.brit.org/uses/search/?string=marah+oreganus</nowiki></ref>
  
 
===Seed===
 
===Seed===
'''Abbreviation:''' MAOR
 
 
 
'''Seed sample from:''' 2011
 
'''Seed sample from:''' 2011
  
Line 70: Line 76:
 
'''Longitudinal Cross Section:''' elliptical  [[File:MAOR long.png]]
 
'''Longitudinal Cross Section:''' elliptical  [[File:MAOR long.png]]
  
 
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===Photo Gallery===
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
File:MAOR BenLegler sdh good.jpg
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File:MAOR BenLegler sdh good.jpg|Fruit, photo by Ben Legler
File:MAOR BenLegler flw avg.jpg
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File:MAOR BenLegler flw avg.jpg| Flower, photo by Ben Legler
File:MAOR DennisPlank sd good (2).jpg
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File:MAOR DennisPlank sd good.jpg
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</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
 
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=== References ===
 
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<references />
SOURCES:
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http://plants.usda.gov/java/ClassificationServlet?source=profile&symbol=MAOR3&display=31
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http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php
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http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/pnw/pnw401.pdf
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http://herb.umd.umich.edu/herb/search.pl
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http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=MAOR3
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http://www.calflora.org/cgi-bin/species_query.cgi?where-taxon=Marah+oreganus]
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Latest revision as of 22:01, 20 March 2021

  • Scientific Name: Marah oregana
  • Family: Cucurbitaceae
  • Common Names: coastal manroot, wild cucumber
  • Synonyms/Misapplications: Echinocystis oregana, Marah oreganus, Sicyos oregana, Megarrhiza oregana, Micrampelis
    oregana
  • Codon: MARORE

Photo by Rod Gilbert, also featured on Main Page

Taxonomy

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Subkingdom: Viridiplantae
Phylum: Tracheophyta
Subphylum: Spermatophytina
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Rosanae
Order: Cucurbitales
Family: Cucurbitaceae
Genus: Marah Kellogg
Species: Marah oregana (Torr. & A. Gray) Howell
Synonyms
  • Marah oreganus (Torr. & A. Gray) Howell
  • Echinocystis oregana (Torr. & A. Gray) Cogn.
  • Sicyos oreganus Torr. & A. Gray
  • Megarrhiza oregana (Torr. & A. Gray) S. Watson

[1]

Description

Native perennial, trailing or climbing with tendrils.

Leaves are alternate, palmately lobed, rough and hairy, and cordate at the base.

Flowers are unisexual, corolla campanulate and white, monoecious.

The bladder-like fruits are sparsely to densely covered with flexible prickles that harden with age, dehiscent at apex when dry. [2]

Name comes from Hebrew marah, bitter, from the intensely bitter root.[3]

Bloom Period

April-June[4]

Distribution

Southwestern BC southwards, west of Cascade-Sierran acis, to northern California, eastwards in Columbia River Gorge, northeast Oregon, and rarely Hells Canyon. [3]

Habitat

Bottomlands and open slopes at low elevations.[3]

Uses

Squaxin use of an infusion of smashed stalks as a soak for sore hands, plant considered poisonous.[5]

Seed

Seed sample from: 2011

Average Measurement: 16.8 x 17 x 8.5

Measurement Range: L: 15 – 18, W: 16 – 18, D: 8 – 9

Features

Shape: Seeds very large, rounded with a pinched looking hilum.

Color: Dark brown, with a lighter brown hilum. Under high magnification seed appears speckled with black.

Surface: Seed covered in very fine velvety hairs. Under high magnification seed appears slightly glossy, but with naked eye, seed is matte.


Latitudinal Cross Section: elliptical MAOR lat.png

Longitudinal Cross Section: elliptical MAOR long.png

Photo Gallery

References

  1. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved from https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=847533
  2. Bowcutt, F., & Hamman, Sarah. (2016). Vascular plants of the South Sound prairies (First ed.). Olympia, Washington: The Evergreen State College Press.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Hitchcock, C. L., Cronquist, A., Giblin, D., & Legler, B. et al. (2018). Flora of the Pacific Northwest: an illustrated manual. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  4. WTU Herbarium, Burke Museum, & University of Washington. Retrieved from https://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/taxon.php?Taxon=Marah%20oregana
  5. Native American Ethnobotany Database. Retrieved from http://naeb.brit.org/uses/search/?string=marah+oreganus