Difference between revisions of "Navarretia squarrosa"

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'''Common name:''' Skunkbush, or Skunkweed
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* Latin Name: ''Navarretia'' ''squarrosa''  
[[File:NASQ whole.jpg|200px|thumb|right|''Navarretia squarrosa'' </br> Used with permission from Gerry D. Carr]]
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* Family: Polemoniaceae
 
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* Common Names: skunkweed
'''Abbreviation Code (Codon):''' NASQ
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* Synonyms/Misapplications: ''Gilia'' ''squarrosa''
[[File:NASQ close up.jpg|300px|thumb|right|''Navarretia squarrosa'' </br> Used with permission from Gerry D. Carr]]
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* Codon: NAVSQU
 
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[[File:NASQ whole.jpg|200px|thumb|''Navarretia squarrosa'' <br> Used with permission from Gerry D. Carr. Also featured on Main Page.]]
'''Synonyms:''' Gilia squarrosa, Navarretia eastwoodiae, Navarretia squarrosa var. agrestis
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<ref name=calflora>http://www.calflora.org/cgi-bin/species_query.cgi?where-calrecnum=5807 </ref>
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==Taxonomy==
 
==Taxonomy==
 
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{{Taxobox
*Kingdom - Plantae – Plants
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| image =
*Subkingdom - Tracheobionta
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| image_caption =
*Superdivision - Spermatophyta  
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| name = '''''Navarretia squarrosa''''
*Division - Magnoliophyta  
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| regnum = [[Plant]]ae
*Class - Magnoliopsida  
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| subregnum = Tracheobionta
*Subclass - Asteridae
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| phylum = Spermatophyta
*Order - Solanales
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| subphylum= Magnoliophyta
*Family - Polemoniaceae  
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| classis = Magnoliopsida
*Genus - ''Navarretia''  
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| subclassis = Asteranae
*Species - ''N. squarrosa''  
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| ordo = Ericales
<ref name=The PLANTS Database> USDA, NRCS. 2012. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 16 April 2012). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.</ref>
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| familia = Polemoniaceae
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| genus = '''''Navarretia''''' Ruiz & Pav.
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| species = ''''' Navarretia squarrosa''''' (Eschsch.) Hook. & Arn.
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}}
  
 
==Description==  
 
==Description==  
  
General: Erect, simple or moderately branched, glandular-hairy annual up to 4 dm. tall, smelling of skunk.
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Annual tap-rooted herb, glandular-hairy and skunk-smelling. Erect, simple, sometimes moderately branched.
Leaves: Leaves firm and spiny, pinnatifid or bipinnatifid, up to 6 cm. long, the terminal segment not elongate.
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Flowers: Inflorescence of dense, leafy-bracteate heads terminating the stem and branches, the heads often 3 cm. thick, the bracts pinnatifid; calyx 8-14 mm. long, the 5 lobes nearly equal, mostly entire; corolla pale to deep blue, about equal to the calyx, the 5 lobes 2-3 mm. long, three veined; filaments 1-4 mm. long, inserted at least 2.5 mm. below the sinuses of the corolla; stigmas 3; ovary 3-celled, superior.
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Fruit: Inflorescence of dense, leafy-bracteate heads terminating the stem and branches, the heads often 3 cm. thick, the bracts pinnatifid; calyx 8-14 mm. long, the 5 lobes nearly equal, mostly entire; corolla pale to deep blue, about equal to the calyx, the 5 lobes 2-3 mm. long, three veined; filaments 1-4 mm. long, inserted at least 2.5 mm. below the sinuses of the corolla; stigmas 3; ovary 3-celled, superior
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Leaves 1-2 times pinnate, spiky and stiff, the terminal segment not much longer than the other lobes, like in some other ''Navarretia'' species.
  
==Bloom Period==
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Sessile flowers in terminal densely bracteate heads. Corollas pale to deep blue, 5-lobed. Stamens attached to corolla, inserted. Braces within inflorescences have bases with thin, membranous margins.
June - September
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<ref name=Burke>http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php</ref>
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Fruits are 3-locular capsules, each with usually 8 or more, sometimes as few as 6, seeds within, which is unique in area in this genus. Seeds become sticky when moistened.<ref>Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2020. ''E-Flora BC: Electronic
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Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia'' [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for Advanced
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Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia,
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Vancouver. [Accessed:2020-05-09]</ref><ref name=":1">Hitchcock, C. L., Cronquist, A., Giblin, D., & Legler,
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B. et al. (2018). ''Flora of the Pacific Northwest: an illustrated manual''.
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Seattle: University of Washington Press.</ref>
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==Bloom Period==
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June - September<ref name=":0">WTU Herbarium, Burke Museum,
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& University of Washington. Retrieved from <nowiki>https://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/taxon.php?Taxon=Navarretia%20squarrosa</nowiki></ref>
  
 
==Distribution==  
 
==Distribution==  
West of the Cascades, from southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, to California.
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West of the Cascades, from southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, to California.<ref name=":0" />
<ref name=Burke>http://biology.burkemuseum.org/herbarium/imagecollection.php</ref>
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==Habitat==
 
==Habitat==
Open places, dry to moist meadows, usually at low elevations. Grows in sandy, loamy, or clay soils,  and tolerates basic, neutral, or acidic soils. Soil moisture level can be dry to moist, but must drain well. ''Navarretia squarrosa'' is shade tolerant, prefers sun.
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Open, wet places at low elevation.<ref name=":1" />
 
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==Uses==
 
==Uses==
''Navarretia squarrosa'' has an edible seed when it is parched, ground into a powder and eaten dry. [94].
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According to M. Sweet, ''Navarretia squarrosa'' has an edible seed when it is parched, ground into a powder and eaten dry.<ref>Sweet, M. (1998). ''Common edible & useful plants of the West''. Naturegraph Publishers.</ref>
 
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==Propagation==
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===Seed===
 
===Seed===
[[File:NASQ seed.png|thumb|right|300px|''Navarretia squarrosa'' </br> Photo Credit Lisa Hintz]]
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[[File:NASQ seed.png|thumb|right|300px|''Navarretia squarrosa'' <br> Photo Credit Lisa Hintz]]
 
'''Seed sample from:''' 2011
 
'''Seed sample from:''' 2011
  
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==Photo Gallery==
 
==Photo Gallery==
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
Image:NASQ KeirMorse flw good.jpeg
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File:NASQ seed.png|Seeds, photo by Lisa Hintz
Image:NASQ PatMontegue veg avg.JPG
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File:NAVSQU1.png|courtesy of CNLM
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</gallery><gallery>
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</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
<References/>
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<references />

Latest revision as of 15:20, 4 June 2020

  • Latin Name: Navarretia squarrosa
  • Family: Polemoniaceae
  • Common Names: skunkweed
  • Synonyms/Misapplications: Gilia squarrosa
  • Codon: NAVSQU
Navarretia squarrosa
Used with permission from Gerry D. Carr. Also featured on Main Page.

Taxonomy

Navarretia squarrosa'
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta
Phylum: Spermatophyta
Subphylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Asteranae
Order: Ericales
Family: Polemoniaceae
Genus: Navarretia Ruiz & Pav.
Species: Navarretia squarrosa (Eschsch.) Hook. & Arn.

Description

Annual tap-rooted herb, glandular-hairy and skunk-smelling. Erect, simple, sometimes moderately branched.

Leaves 1-2 times pinnate, spiky and stiff, the terminal segment not much longer than the other lobes, like in some other Navarretia species.

Sessile flowers in terminal densely bracteate heads. Corollas pale to deep blue, 5-lobed. Stamens attached to corolla, inserted. Braces within inflorescences have bases with thin, membranous margins.

Fruits are 3-locular capsules, each with usually 8 or more, sometimes as few as 6, seeds within, which is unique in area in this genus. Seeds become sticky when moistened.[1][2]

Bloom Period

June - September[3]

Distribution

West of the Cascades, from southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, to California.[3]

Habitat

Open, wet places at low elevation.[2]

Uses

According to M. Sweet, Navarretia squarrosa has an edible seed when it is parched, ground into a powder and eaten dry.[4]

Seed

Navarretia squarrosa
Photo Credit Lisa Hintz

Seed sample from: 2011

Average Measurement: 0.9 x 0.6 x 0.5

Measurement Range: L: 0.75 – 1.1, W: 0.5 – 0.75, D: 0.4 – 0.5

Features

Shape: Seeds tapered to almost pointed at hilum ends. Body of seeds sometimes not completely filled out – some concave dents. Hilum is pinched looking in some.

Color: Seeds reddish brown, hilum usually slightly lighter in color, but not very conspicuous.

Surface: Seeds covered in wrinkly pitted pattern. About 30 – 40 medium sized pits visible on one seed face. Seeds slightly rough looking, and somewhat lustrous.

Latitudinal Cross Section: elliptical NASQ lat.png

Longitudinal Cross Section: elliptical NASQ long.png

Basic Explanations and Assumptions:

The dimensions for the seeds are length x width x depth. The location of the hilum is used as the base of the seed, and the length is measured from hilum to the opposite apex. Where a style is present, the length is measured from the hilum to the bottom of the style. Width is measured at a right angle to the length at the widest part. Depth is measured at a right angle to the intersection of height and width lines.

Measurements included are the mean average for each measurement of ten separate seeds.

All measurements in millimeters unless otherwise noted.

Photo Gallery

References

  1. Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2020. E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:2020-05-09]
  2. 2.0 2.1 Hitchcock, C. L., Cronquist, A., Giblin, D., & Legler, B. et al. (2018). Flora of the Pacific Northwest: an illustrated manual. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  3. 3.0 3.1 WTU Herbarium, Burke Museum, & University of Washington. Retrieved from https://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/taxon.php?Taxon=Navarretia%20squarrosa
  4. Sweet, M. (1998). Common edible & useful plants of the West. Naturegraph Publishers.