Difference between revisions of "Perideridia montana"

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* Latin Name: ''Perideridia'' ''montana''
''Perideridia gairdneri,'' also called Gairdner's yampah, common yampah, or Gardner's yampah is a flowering plant in the Apiaceae family.  
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* Family: Apiaceae
 
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* Common Names: mountain yampah, Gaidner's yampah
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* Synonyms/Misapplications: ''Perideridia'' ''gairdneri'' (misapplied, Mathias, in previous Flora)'', Atenia'' ''montana, Carum'' ''garrettii, Carum'' ''montanum,'' ''P. g.'' subsp. ''bolanderi''
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* Codon: PERMON
 
==Taxonomy==
 
==Taxonomy==
*Kingdom - Plantae – Plants
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*Subkingdom - Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
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{{Taxobox
*Superdivision - Spermatophyta – Seed plants
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| image = PERMON2.jpg
*Division - Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
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| image_caption =Photo by Ron Bockelman, 2011, same photo from Main Page
*Class -Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
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| name = '''''Perideridia montana'''''
*Subclass - Rosidae
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| regnum = [[Plant]]ae
*Order - Apiales
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| subregnum = Tracheobionta
*Family - Apiaceae – Carrot family
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| phylum = Spermatophyta
*Genus - Perideridia
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| subphylum= Magnoliophyta
*Species - P. gairdneri
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| classis = Magnoliopsida
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| subclassis = Asteranae
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| ordo = Apiales
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| familia = Apiaceae
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| genus = '''''Perideridia''''' Richb.
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| species = '''''Perideridia montana''''' (Blank.) Dorn
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}}
  
 
==Description==
 
==Description==
''P. gairdneri'' is a thick, tuberous rooted perennial herb that is slender and hairless. It has solitary, leafy stems, and grows from 40 - 120 cm tall. It has several, well distributed leaves that are once or two times pinnately divided into long, narrow segments. Flowers are white or pink and small, and are united in groups to form one to several compound umbels. Fruits are nearly spherical and slightly flattened, with distinct ribs. Fruits 2 - 3 mm long.  
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'''Mature fruits needed for accurate identification.'''
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Glabrous perennial herbs from thickened tuberous edible roots. <ref name=":0" />
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Leaves merely once or twice pinnate or ternate, the terminal segments long and narrow.<ref name=":1">Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2020. ''E-Flora BC: ''
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                    Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia'' [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:''
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                    2020-06-03 12:05:29 AM
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]</ref>
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Inflorescence compound, spokes up to 6 mm at maturity, involucel bracts mostly setaceous, or absent. Flowers generally 5-7 veined Rays generally 11-16.<ref name=":1" /><ref name=":0" /><ref>Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax 2012, ''Perideridia gairdneri subsp. borealis'', in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) ''Jepson eFlora'', /eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=52099, accessed on  June 02, 2020.</ref>
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Fruit glabrous, sub-orbicular, 2-3 mm. long and wide, with prominent ribs. <ref name=":2" />
  
Source: Pojar pg 221
 
 
 
==Bloom Period==
 
==Bloom Period==
July to August
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July to August<ref name=":2">WTU Herbarium, Burke Museum,
Source: http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php
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& University of Washington. Retrieved from <nowiki>https://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/taxon.php?Taxon=Perideridia%20montana</nowiki></ref>
  
 
==Distribution==
 
==Distribution==
Occurs from British Columbia to Saskatchewan, south across the Rockies and West Coast, down to Southern California.
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Southern BC south, on both sides of Cascades, to southern California, east to northern Great Plains, Wyoming and Colorado.<ref name=":0">Hitchcock, C. L., Cronquist, A., Giblin, D., & Legler,
 
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B. et al. (2018). ''Flora of the Pacific Northwest: an illustrated manual''.
Source: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PEGA3
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Seattle: University of Washington Press.</ref>
  
 
==Habitat==
 
==Habitat==
Dry to vernally moist open forest, meadow, or grassy slope. Low to middle elevation.  
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Perideridia gairdneri prefers well-drained, nitrogen medium soils. It tolerates slightly acid to mildly alkaline soils. It is very shade intolerant. It is a climax species in drier sites, and is found in the meadow communities in Garry oak ecosystems.
 
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Grows from low to middle elevations.<ref name=":1" />
Source: Pojar 221
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==Uses==
 
==Uses==
Roots of ''P. gairdneri'' were eaten my Straits Salish and other First Peoples groups of the Northwest, and by interior peoples from south central British Columbia, to the great basin. The roots were pounded by native people to make flour.  
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Important food plant in many places.
  
Source: Pojar pg 221
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Newe use as a food, pit-roasted.
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Pomo staple food, roots and greens.
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Syilx food, eaten raw, boiled or cooked, sliced, dried and mixed with dried, powdered deer meat.<ref>Native American Ethnobotany Database. Retrieved from <nowiki>http://naeb.brit.org/uses/search/?string=Perideridia&page=1</nowiki></ref>
  
 
==Propagation==
 
==Propagation==
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===The Seed===
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[[File:Pega seed.png|thumb|300px|''Perideridia montana''<br> Photo Credit Lisa Hintz]]
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Seed sample from 2011
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====Features====
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'''Average Measurement:''' 2.3 x 1 x 1
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'''Measurement Range:''' L: 1.5 – 3, W: 0.8 – 1.1, D: 0.75 – 1.3
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'''Latitudinal Cross Section:''' ovate
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'''Longitudinal Cross Section:''' elliptical
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'''Shape:''' Seed schizoid, flat on one plane, and rounded on the opposite plane. Lots of irregularity in shape.
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'''Color:''' Various shades of green and brown. Hilum usually white. Some seeds have pink from remnant flower structure at apex opposite hilum.
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'''Surface:''' Seeds have five ridges on outer seed face that run from hilum to opposite apex longitudinally. Inner seed face has one white rib that bisects the seed face.
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{{Basics}}
  
 
==Photo Gallery==
 
==Photo Gallery==
http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php
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<gallery>
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File:PERMON1.jpg| Photo by Ron Bockelman
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File:PERMON4.jpg|seeds, photo by Robert T. George, 2016
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File:PERMON5.jpg|Inflorescence in fruit, photo by Robert T. George, 2016
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File:PERMON6.jpg|Understory with ''P. montana'', photo by Robert T. George, 2016
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</gallery>
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
<References/>
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<references />

Latest revision as of 17:58, 3 June 2020

  • Latin Name: Perideridia montana
  • Family: Apiaceae
  • Common Names: mountain yampah, Gaidner's yampah
  • Synonyms/Misapplications: Perideridia gairdneri (misapplied, Mathias, in previous Flora), Atenia montana, Carum garrettii, Carum montanum, P. g. subsp. bolanderi
  • Codon: PERMON

Taxonomy

Perideridia montana
Photo by Ron Bockelman, 2011, same photo from Main Page
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta
Phylum: Spermatophyta
Subphylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Asteranae
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Perideridia Richb.
Species: Perideridia montana (Blank.) Dorn

Description

Mature fruits needed for accurate identification.

Glabrous perennial herbs from thickened tuberous edible roots. [1]

Leaves merely once or twice pinnate or ternate, the terminal segments long and narrow.[2]

Inflorescence compound, spokes up to 6 mm at maturity, involucel bracts mostly setaceous, or absent. Flowers generally 5-7 veined Rays generally 11-16.[2][1][3]

Fruit glabrous, sub-orbicular, 2-3 mm. long and wide, with prominent ribs. [4]

Bloom Period

July to August[4]

Distribution

Southern BC south, on both sides of Cascades, to southern California, east to northern Great Plains, Wyoming and Colorado.[1]

Habitat

Perideridia gairdneri prefers well-drained, nitrogen medium soils. It tolerates slightly acid to mildly alkaline soils. It is very shade intolerant. It is a climax species in drier sites, and is found in the meadow communities in Garry oak ecosystems. Grows from low to middle elevations.[2]

Uses

Important food plant in many places.

Newe use as a food, pit-roasted.

Pomo staple food, roots and greens.

Syilx food, eaten raw, boiled or cooked, sliced, dried and mixed with dried, powdered deer meat.[5]

Propagation

The Seed

Perideridia montana
Photo Credit Lisa Hintz

Seed sample from 2011

Features

Average Measurement: 2.3 x 1 x 1

Measurement Range: L: 1.5 – 3, W: 0.8 – 1.1, D: 0.75 – 1.3

Latitudinal Cross Section: ovate

Longitudinal Cross Section: elliptical

Shape: Seed schizoid, flat on one plane, and rounded on the opposite plane. Lots of irregularity in shape.

Color: Various shades of green and brown. Hilum usually white. Some seeds have pink from remnant flower structure at apex opposite hilum.

Surface: Seeds have five ridges on outer seed face that run from hilum to opposite apex longitudinally. Inner seed face has one white rib that bisects the seed face.

Basic Explanations and Assumptions:

The dimensions for the seeds are length x width x depth. The location of the hilum is used as the base of the seed, and the length is measured from hilum to the opposite apex. Where a style is present, the length is measured from the hilum to the bottom of the style. Width is measured at a right angle to the length at the widest part. Depth is measured at a right angle to the intersection of height and width lines.

Measurements included are the mean average for each measurement of ten separate seeds.

All measurements in millimeters unless otherwise noted.

Photo Gallery

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Hitchcock, C. L., Cronquist, A., Giblin, D., & Legler, B. et al. (2018). Flora of the Pacific Northwest: an illustrated manual. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2020. E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed: 2020-06-03 12:05:29 AM ]
  3. Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax 2012, Perideridia gairdneri subsp. borealis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, /eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=52099, accessed on June 02, 2020.
  4. 4.0 4.1 WTU Herbarium, Burke Museum, & University of Washington. Retrieved from https://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/taxon.php?Taxon=Perideridia%20montana
  5. Native American Ethnobotany Database. Retrieved from http://naeb.brit.org/uses/search/?string=Perideridia&page=1