Difference between revisions of "Ranunculus occidentalis"

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'''''Ranunculus occidentalis''''', or the Western buttercup, is a flowering plant of the Ranunculaceae family.
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*[[File:RAOC BenLegler veg avg.jpg|thumb|photo by Ben Legler]]Scientific Name: ''Ranunculus occidentalis'' var. ''occidentalis''  
[[File:RAOC BenLegler veg avg.jpg|right|350px|Ranunculus occidentalis]]
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* Family: Ranunculaceae
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* Common Names: western buttercup 
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* Synonyms/Misapplications: ''Ranunclus eisenii, R. occidentalis'' var''. eisenii, R. o.'' var. ''rattanii, R. o.'' var. ''typicus''
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* Codon: RANOCC
  
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=== Taxonomy ===
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{{Taxobox
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| name = Ranunculus occidentalis
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| regnum = [[Plant]]ae
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| subregnum = Tracheobionta
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| phylum = Spermatophyta
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| subphylum= Magnoliophyta
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| classis = Magnoliopsida
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| subclassis = Ranunculanae
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| ordo = Ranunculales
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| familia = Ranunculaceae
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| genus = '''''Ranunculus''''' L.
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| species = '''''Ranunculus occidentalis''''' Nutt.
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| subspecies = '''''Ranunculus occidentalis''''' var. '''''occidentalis''''' Nutt.
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| range_map = RAOC distribution.png
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| range_map_caption = '''''Ranunculus occidentalis''''' range
  
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}}
  
===Taxonomy===
 
*Kingdom Plantae – Plants
 
*Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
 
*Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
 
*Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
 
*Class  Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
 
*Subclass Magnoliidae
 
*Order - Ranunculales
 
*Family Ranunculaceae – Buttercup family
 
*Genus ''Ranunculus'' - Buttercup
 
*Species ''Ranunculus occidentalis'' Nutt.  – Western buttercup
 
 
 
===Description===
 
===Description===
  
Stiff-hairy perennial from slender fibrous roots, the 1-several stems erect, usually hollow, freely branched, 1.5-4 dm. tall. Basal leaves long-petiolate, the blades 2-3.5 cm. long, deeply 3-lobed, the lobes with coarse, rounded teeth; cauline leaves alternate, more deeply dissected, reduced upward to the entire bracts.  Pedicels single-flowered, up to 10 cm. long; sepals 5, greenish or pinkish-tinged, spreading but sharply reflexed at mid-length, hairy, early-deciduous; petals 5, yellow, oblong, 9-12 mm. long and nearly half as broad; nectary scale broadly wedge-shaped, 1 mm. long, the lateral margins free ¾ their length; receptacle ovoid; stamens 30-60; pistils 10-20. <ref name="Center for Natural Lands Management"/>
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Erect perennial with stiff hairs emerging from slender fibrous roots, stems usually hollow, 1.5-4 dm tall.
<ref name="Center for Natural Lands Management">[http://www.cnlm.org/cms/]</ref>
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[[File:RAOC GDCarr flw avg.jpg|right|300px|''Ranunculus occidentalis''flower]]
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Basal leaves long-petiolate, the blades 2-3.5 cm. long, deeply lobed into 3 segments, the lobes with coarse, rounded teeth; cauline leaves alternate, more deeply dissected, reduced upward to the entire bracts. 
  
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Sepals strongly reflexed along a well-defined fold, bears 5-petaled yellow flowers with many pistils.
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The fruit is an aggregate of pumpkin-seed shaped achenes. The styles jutting out from the ends of achenes are less hooked than ''R. uncinatus.'' Leaves are also more pubescent and lighter in color than ''R. uncinatus.''<ref>WTU Herbarium, Burke Museum, & University of Washington. Retrieved from <nowiki>https://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/taxon.php?Taxon=Ranunculus%20occidentalis%20var.%20occidentalis</nowiki></ref><ref name=":1">Hitchcock, C. L., Cronquist, A., Giblin, D., & Legler,
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B. et al. (2018). ''Flora of the Pacific Northwest: an illustrated manual''.
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Seattle: University of Washington Press.</ref><ref name=":0" />
 
===Bloom Period===
 
===Bloom Period===
April-June <ref name="Center for Natural Lands Management">[http://www.cnlm.org/cms/]</ref>
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April-June, right before and among the Camas.<ref name=":0">Bowcutt, F., & Hamman, Sarah. (2016). ''Vascular plants''
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of the South Sound prairies'' (First ed.). Olympia, Washington: The Evergreen''
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State College Press.</ref>
  
 
===Distribution===
 
===Distribution===
West of the Cascades, Alaska to California, and east to the Blue mountains in Oregon. <ref name="Center for Natural Lands Management">[http://www.cnlm.org/cms/]</ref>
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Southwest BC south, west of the Cascades, and in Columbia River Gorge, to California.<ref name=":1" />
[[File:RAOC distribution.png|200px|thumb|right|''Ranunculus occidentalis'' distribution]]
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===Habitat===
 
===Habitat===
Moist to well-drained soil, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.  
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Moist to well-drained soil, meadows and open woods, mostly west Cascades, Alaska to California, east to Alberta and northeast Oregon.<ref name=":1" />
<ref name="Center for Natural Lands Management">[http://www.cnlm.org/cms/]</ref>
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===Uses===
 
===Uses===
Landscaping: Meadow communities, lawn conversions or borders
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Ecological: Adult Mardon Skippers (''Polites mardon'') feed on the nectar of ''R. occidentalis,'' among other flowers. <ref name=":0" />  
First Nations: The juice from the flowers was used as a poison. Seeds can be cooked and used as piñole either on their own or mixed with other seeds. The seed must be parched in order to remove an acrid principle.   
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===Propagation===
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First Nations: The juice from the flowers used as a poison.  Seeds cooked and used as piñole either on their own or mixed with other seeds. The seed must be parched in order to remove an acrid principle.<ref>Native American Ethnobotany Database. Retrieved from <nowiki>http://naeb.brit.org/uses/search/?string=ranunculus+occidentalis</nowiki></ref>
  
  
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[[File:Ranunculus occidentalis.jpg|300px|thumb|right|''Ranunculus occidentalis'']]
 
[[File:Ranunculus occidentalis.jpg|300px|thumb|right|''Ranunculus occidentalis'']]
'''Abbreviation:''' RAOC
 
  
 
'''Seed sample from:''' 2011
 
'''Seed sample from:''' 2011
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===Photo Gallery===
 
===Photo Gallery===
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
File:RAOC BenLegler veg avg.jpg
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File:RANOCC2.jpg|photo by Ben Legler
File:RAOC GDCarr flw avg.jpg
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File:RANOCC1.jpg|young growth, courtesy of CNLM
 
File:Ranunculus occidentalis.jpg
 
File:Ranunculus occidentalis.jpg
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
===References===
 
===References===
<References/>
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<references />

Latest revision as of 12:18, 9 May 2020

  • photo by Ben Legler
    Scientific Name: Ranunculus occidentalis var. occidentalis
  • Family: Ranunculaceae
  • Common Names: western buttercup
  • Synonyms/Misapplications: Ranunclus eisenii, R. occidentalis var. eisenii, R. o. var. rattanii, R. o. var. typicus
  • Codon: RANOCC

Taxonomy

Ranunculus occidentalis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta
Phylum: Spermatophyta
Subphylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Ranunculanae
Order: Ranunculales
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus: Ranunculus L.
Species: Ranunculus occidentalis Nutt.
Subspecies: Ranunculus occidentalis var. occidentalis Nutt.
Ranunculus occidentalis range

Description

Erect perennial with stiff hairs emerging from slender fibrous roots, stems usually hollow, 1.5-4 dm tall.

Basal leaves long-petiolate, the blades 2-3.5 cm. long, deeply lobed into 3 segments, the lobes with coarse, rounded teeth; cauline leaves alternate, more deeply dissected, reduced upward to the entire bracts.

Sepals strongly reflexed along a well-defined fold, bears 5-petaled yellow flowers with many pistils.

The fruit is an aggregate of pumpkin-seed shaped achenes. The styles jutting out from the ends of achenes are less hooked than R. uncinatus. Leaves are also more pubescent and lighter in color than R. uncinatus.[1][2][3]

Bloom Period

April-June, right before and among the Camas.[3]

Distribution

Southwest BC south, west of the Cascades, and in Columbia River Gorge, to California.[2]

Habitat

Moist to well-drained soil, meadows and open woods, mostly west Cascades, Alaska to California, east to Alberta and northeast Oregon.[2]

Uses

Ecological: Adult Mardon Skippers (Polites mardon) feed on the nectar of R. occidentalis, among other flowers. [3]

First Nations: The juice from the flowers used as a poison. Seeds cooked and used as piñole either on their own or mixed with other seeds. The seed must be parched in order to remove an acrid principle.[4]


Seed

Ranunculus occidentalis

Seed sample from: 2011

Average Measurement: 3.5 x 2.6 x 1

Measurement Range: L: 3 - 4, W: 2 - 3, D: 0.75 - 1.25

Features

Shape: Seed surface is rounded, tapering off to a style that is opposite hilum, but off centered from it.

Additional structures: Style generally 1 – 2 mm long.

Color: Seeds are brown, tending toward a lighter brown or tan at edges of seed surface.

Surface: Seeds are papillose with some small ridges around the surface edges.

Latitudinal Cross Section: elliptical RAOC latitudinal.png

Longitudinal Cross Section: elliptical RAOC-logitudinal.png


Basic Explanations and Assumptions:

The dimensions for the seeds are length x width x depth. The location of the hilum is used as the base of the seed, and the length is measured from hilum to the opposite apex. Where a style is present, the length is measured from the hilum to the bottom of the style. Width is measured at a right angle to the length at the widest part. Depth is measured at a right angle to the intersection of height and width lines.

Measurements included are the mean average for each measurement of ten separate seeds.

All measurements in millimeters unless otherwise noted.

Photo Gallery

References

  1. WTU Herbarium, Burke Museum, & University of Washington. Retrieved from https://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/taxon.php?Taxon=Ranunculus%20occidentalis%20var.%20occidentalis
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Hitchcock, C. L., Cronquist, A., Giblin, D., & Legler, B. et al. (2018). Flora of the Pacific Northwest: an illustrated manual. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Bowcutt, F., & Hamman, Sarah. (2016). Vascular plants of the South Sound prairies (First ed.). Olympia, Washington: The Evergreen State College Press.
  4. Native American Ethnobotany Database. Retrieved from http://naeb.brit.org/uses/search/?string=ranunculus+occidentalis