Viola nuttallii var. praemorsa
- Scientific Name: Viola nuttallii var. praemosa
- Family: Violaceae
- Common Names: canary violet, upland yellow violet, yellow montane violet
- Synonyms/Misapplications: V. praemorsa, V, praemosa vars. flavovirens, linguifolia
- Codon: VIONUT
|Genus:|| Viola L.|
|Species:|| Viola nuttallii Pursh|
|Subspecies:|| Viola nuttalli var. praemorsa (Douglas ex Lindl.) S. Watson (not accepted)|
BurkeGeneral: Perennial from short, erect rhizomes, the stems up to 15 cm. long. Leaves: Leaf blades conspicuously hairy, thick and fleshy, entire, ovate-lanceolate, 5-10 cm. long; petiole 5-15 cm. long; stipules attached to the petiole, the free portion few-toothed.
Flowers: Flowers with peduncles shorter than the leaves; flowers 8-15 mm. long, yellow, the upper petals brownish-backed, the lower 3 penciled with brownish-purple, the lateral pair bearded; style head bearded, rounded.
Fruit: Fruit a hairy, 3-valved capsule, ovary superior, placentation parietal.
BCGeneral: Perennial herb from a fibrous root, without stolons; stems erect, sparsely to densely hairy, largely underground but the aerial stems 6-30 cm tall.
Leaves: Basal leaves egg-shaped to lanceolate, entire or slightly wavy, sparsely to densely hairy, the blades 2-10 cm long, 1-3.5 cm wide, the stalks 3-15 cm long; stem leaves lacking or few, similar; stipules joined to the stem with the free end entire to toothed, sparsely to densely hairy.
Flowers: Inflorescence of single, axillary flowers; petals 5, yellow, the lower petal 12-20 mm long including the 1- to 2-mm long spur, the lower 3 usually brown-penicilled and sometimes tinged with brown, the lateral pair bearded; sepals 5, lanceolate; style heads bearded.
Fruits: Capsules, smooth to hairy, 6-11 mm long; seeds dark brown.
Habit: Perennial herb 7.5--30 cm, glabrous to densely puberulent. Stem: prostrate to erect, generally several, clustered on 1--several subterranean caudices from woody rhizome. Leaf: simple; basal 1--5 per caudex, petiole 4.3--19.2 cm, blade 2.3--8.5 cm, 1.4--3.7 cm wide, elliptic or ovate, entire, wavy, or generally irregularly crenate to serrate, base tapered, often oblique to +- truncate, tip acute or obtuse; cauline blade 2.6--5.8 cm, 1.3--3.5 cm wide, like basal. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 2.7--26 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate, ciliate or not; petals deep lemon-yellow, upper 2, sometimes lateral 2 maroon or +- brown abaxially, lower 3 veined brown-purple, lateral 2 bearded with cylindric hairs, lowest 12--20 mm. Fruit: 6--12 mm, elliptic to oblong, glabrous to minutely puberulent. Seed: 2--3 mm, medium to dark brown, +- 1/3 length covered by outgrowth.
Perennial, rhizomatous herb with axillary yellow flowers, to 30 cm tall. Stems several, erect, borne from underground caudices, hairy. Leaves mostly basal, not coarsely veined, crenate to serrate, hairy, fleshy, petiolate, ovate-lanceolate, to 10 cm, petioles to 15 cm long. Flowers 5-merous, solitary, axillary, zygomorphic; sepals 5, lanceolate; petals 5, lowermost larger and spurred, upper 4 in 2 pairs; lower 3 petals with brown-purple veins, lateral 2 bearded; stamens 5, connivent around pistil; pistil 3-carpellate with 1 style, bearded stigma and superior ovary with parietal placentation becoming a ellipsoid to oblong 3-valved capsule.
Both sides of the Cascades, into Northern California, east to Montana, Wyoming and Northern Utah.
Grasslands, shrub-steppe, open forest. Moisture Regime-Moist Shade Tolerance-Intolerant
- ↑ Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved from https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=847695#null
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 WTU Herbarium, Burke Museum, & University of Washington. Retrieved from https://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/taxon.php?Taxon=Viola%20nuttallii%20var.%20praemorsa
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Jepson Herbarium Online Flora. Retrieved from https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=53398
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia. Retrieved from https://linnet.geog.ubc.ca/Atlas/Atlas.aspx?sciname=Viola%20praemorsa&redblue=Both&lifeform=7
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Hitchcock, C. L., Cronquist, A., Giblin, D., & Legler, B. et al. (2018). Flora of the Pacific Northwest: an illustrated manual. Seattle: University of Washington Press.