Difference between revisions of "Toxicoscordion venenosum"

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Zigadenus venenosus,Liliaceae, Death Camas, Meadow Death Camas, Common Death Camas
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* Scientific Name: ''Toxicoscordion venenosum var. venenosum''
[[File:ZIVE PatMontegue flw good.jpg|250px|right|thumb|Zigadenus venenosus]]
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* Family: Melanthiaceae
 
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* Common Names: death camas, meadow death camas, common death camas, deadly zigadenus.
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* Synonyms and Misapplications: ''Zigadenus venenosus''
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* Codon: TOXVEN
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[[File:TOXSCO1.jpg|thumb|333x333px|Toxicoscordion venenosum. Photo Ben Legler 2004]]
  
 
==Taxonomy==
 
==Taxonomy==
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{{Taxobox
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| name = Toxicoscordion venenosum
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| regnum = [[Plant]]ae
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| subregnum = Tracheobionta
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| phylum = Spermatophyta
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| subphylum= Magnoliophyta
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| classis = Liliopsida
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| subclassis = Lilidae
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| ordo = Liales
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| familia = Melanthiaceae
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| genus = '''''Toxicoscordion V.'''''
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| species = '''''Toxicoscordion venenosum Rydb.'''''
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| binomial =
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| binomial_authority =
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| synonyms = ''Zigadenus venenosus''
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}}
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==Description==
 
==Description==
General: Glabrous perennial herbs from an onion-like bulb, the simple stem 2-5 dm. tall.
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General: Glabrous perennial herb from an onion-like bulb, the simple stem 2-5 dm. tall.
 
Leaves: Leaves mostly basal, linear, keeled, 1-3 dm. long and 3-6 mm. broad; cauline leaves strongly reduced upward.
 
Leaves: Leaves mostly basal, linear, keeled, 1-3 dm. long and 3-6 mm. broad; cauline leaves strongly reduced upward.
Flowers: Inflorescence a raceme (but sometimes the raceme branched at the base) up to 1.5 dm. long, the flowers all perfect; perianth white to cream-colored, bell-shaped; tepals 6, unequal, the outer 4.5-5 mm. long, short-clawed, the inner about 0.5 mm. longer with a narrower, slightly longer claw; the gland at the base of each tepal yellowish-green, broader than long; stamens 6, about equal to the tepals; styles 3, distinct, 2-3 mm. long.
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Flowers: Inflorescence a raceme (but sometimes the raceme branched at the base) up to 1.5 dm. long, the flowers all perfect; perianth white to cream-colored, bell-shaped; tepals 6, slightly unequal, the outer 4.5-5 mm. long, short-clawed, the inner about 0.5 mm. longer with a narrower, slightly longer claw; the gland at the base of each tepal yellowish-green, broader than long; stamens 6, about equal to the tepals; styles 3, distinct, 2-3 mm. long.
 
Fruit: Capsule 8-15 mm. long.
 
Fruit: Capsule 8-15 mm. long.
  
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==Distribution==
 
==Distribution==
British Columbia to Baja California, east to the Dakotas; more common west of the Cascades in Washington
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British Columbia to Baja California, east to the Dakotas; var. venenosum more common west of the Cascades in Washington, var. graminaeum common in Eastern WA.<ref name=":0">Hitchcock, C. L., Cronquist, A., Giblin, D.,
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& Legler, B. et al. (2018). ''Flora of the Pacific Northwest: an
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illustrated manual''. Seattle: University of Washington Press</ref>
 
==Habitat==
 
==Habitat==
Ecological Setting Coastal bluffs and prairies, and moister areas of shrub-steppe and mountain meadows
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Coastal bluffs and prairies, grassy hillsides, and moister areas of shrub-steppe and open pine woodlands<ref name=":0" />
==Uses==
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==Uses ==
==Propagation==
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First Nations-Used as a violent emetic, sometimes mixed with blue flag; poultice of mashed roots applied to rheumatism, boils, bruises, sprains, sore legs, burns, swellings, rattlesnake bites, and broken bones to speed healing; mashed roots sometimes used as an arrow poison
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Other-This plant is highly toxic and can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative source
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==Seed==
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{{Basics}}
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==== Medicinal Uses ====
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Traditionally used as a violent emetic, sometimes mixed with blue flag; poultice of mashed roots applied to rheumatism, boils, bruises, sprains, sore legs, burns, swellings, rattlesnake bites, and broken bones to speed healing; mashed roots sometimes used as an arrow poison.<ref>Native American Ethnobotany Database. Retrieved from
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<nowiki>http://naeb.brit.org/</nowiki></ref>
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
==Photo Gallery==
 
==Photo Gallery==
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
File:ZIVE BenLegler sdh good.jpg
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File:ZIVE BenLegler sdh good.jpg | In fruit. Photo Ben Legler
File:ZIVE PatMontegue flw good.jpg
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File:TOXSCO1.jpg| Photo Ben Legler
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File:Toxicoscordionseedling.jpg | Seedling
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
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<references />

Latest revision as of 15:24, 21 April 2020

  • Scientific Name: Toxicoscordion venenosum var. venenosum
  • Family: Melanthiaceae
  • Common Names: death camas, meadow death camas, common death camas, deadly zigadenus.
  • Synonyms and Misapplications: Zigadenus venenosus
  • Codon: TOXVEN
Toxicoscordion venenosum. Photo Ben Legler 2004

Taxonomy

Toxicoscordion venenosum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta
Phylum: Spermatophyta
Subphylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Subclass: Lilidae
Order: Liales
Family: Melanthiaceae
Genus: Toxicoscordion V.
Species: Toxicoscordion venenosum Rydb.
Synonyms

Zigadenus venenosus

Description

General: Glabrous perennial herb from an onion-like bulb, the simple stem 2-5 dm. tall. Leaves: Leaves mostly basal, linear, keeled, 1-3 dm. long and 3-6 mm. broad; cauline leaves strongly reduced upward. Flowers: Inflorescence a raceme (but sometimes the raceme branched at the base) up to 1.5 dm. long, the flowers all perfect; perianth white to cream-colored, bell-shaped; tepals 6, slightly unequal, the outer 4.5-5 mm. long, short-clawed, the inner about 0.5 mm. longer with a narrower, slightly longer claw; the gland at the base of each tepal yellowish-green, broader than long; stamens 6, about equal to the tepals; styles 3, distinct, 2-3 mm. long. Fruit: Capsule 8-15 mm. long.

Bloom Period

April-July

Distribution

British Columbia to Baja California, east to the Dakotas; var. venenosum more common west of the Cascades in Washington, var. graminaeum common in Eastern WA.[1]

Habitat

Coastal bluffs and prairies, grassy hillsides, and moister areas of shrub-steppe and open pine woodlands[1]

Uses

Medicinal Uses

Traditionally used as a violent emetic, sometimes mixed with blue flag; poultice of mashed roots applied to rheumatism, boils, bruises, sprains, sore legs, burns, swellings, rattlesnake bites, and broken bones to speed healing; mashed roots sometimes used as an arrow poison.[2]

References

Photo Gallery

  1. 1.0 1.1 Hitchcock, C. L., Cronquist, A., Giblin, D., & Legler, B. et al. (2018). Flora of the Pacific Northwest: an illustrated manual. Seattle: University of Washington Press
  2. Native American Ethnobotany Database. Retrieved from http://naeb.brit.org/