Viola glabella

From Puget Prairie Plants
  • Scientific Name: Viola glabella
  • Family: Violaceae
  • Common Names: stream violet, yellow wood violet, pioneer violet
  • Codon: VIOGLA

Ben Legler 2004, also featured on Main Page


Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Subkingdom: Viridiplantae
Phylum: Tracheophyta
Subphylum: Spermatophytina
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Rosanae
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Violaceae
Genus: Viola L.
Species: Viola Glabella Nutt.



Native, perennial, rhizomatous[2] herb with cordate leaves and axillary yellow flowers, to 30 cm tall.[3] Stems erect, 1-3,[4] lower half leafless.[2] Leaves simple, cordate, petiolate, crenate to serrate, basal leaves to 9.3 cm, cauline to 5.7 cm.[4] Flowers 5-merous, solitary, axillary, zygomorphic; sepals 5, lanceolate-linear;[4] petals 5, lowermost larger and spurred, upper 4 in 2 pairs;[5] lower 3 petals with dark violet veins, lateral 2 bearded;[4] stamens 5, connivent around pistil;[5] pistil 3-carpellate with 1 style, globose stigma[5] and superior ovary with parietal placentation becoming a 3-valved capsule.[2]

Bloom Period

March-July [2]


Both sides of the Cascades in Washington, Alaska to California, east to Montana[5]


Stream banks and moist forests, low to mid-elevations.[2]


Stream violet is easy to establish in woodland gardens. It may reseed and can become somewhat weedy.

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  1. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved from
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 WTU Herbarium, Burke Museum, & University of Washington. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  3. Bowcutt, F., & Hamman, S. (2016). Vascular Plants of the South Sound Prairies. Olympia: The Evergreen State College Press. p. 113.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Jepson Herbarium Online Flora. Retrieved from
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Hitchcock, C., Cronquist, Arthur, Giblin, David, Legler, Ben, Zika, Peter F., Olmstead, Richard G., . . . Porcino, Natsuko. (2018). Flora of the Pacific Northwest : An illustrated manual (Second ed.). Seattle: University of Washington Press ; Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture.