"The concept of adaptive expertise (Hatano and Inagaki, 1996) provides an important model of successful learning. Adaptive experts are able to approach new situations flexibly and to learn throughout their lifetimes. They do not only use what they have learned, they are also metacognitive and continually question their current level of expertise and attempt to move beyond them. They don't simply attempt to do the same things more efficiently; they attempt to do things better. A major challenge for theories of learning is to understand how particular kinds of learning experiences develop adaptive expertise or "virtuosos."
- Bransford et al, Learning: From Speculation to Science, and How Experts Differ from Novices from How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School