- 1 Standard 5 – Library and Information Resources
- 1.1 Standard 5.A – Purpose and Scope
- 1.1.1 Supporting the Academic Mission of the College
- 1.1.2 The Founding Vision of the Library: Any Medium, Any Location
- 1.1.3 Functions and Facilities Covered in Standard 5
- 1.1.4 5.A.1 Sufficiency of Information Resources and Services
- 1.1.5 5.A.2 Sufficiency of Core Collection and Related Resources
- 1.1.6 5.A.3 Education Program Drives Resources and Services
- 1.2 Standard 5.B – Information Resources and Services
- 1.2.1 5.B.1 Equipment and Materials to Support the Educational Program
- 1.2.2 5.B.2 Teaching and Instruction
- 220.127.116.11 Defining Information Technology Literacy
- 18.104.22.168 ITL in the Context of Holly's Generic Library
- 22.214.171.124 Cross-Curricular Media Instruction
- 126.96.36.199 Faculty Librarians and Library Teaching
- 188.8.131.52 Library Faculty as Service Providers
- 184.108.40.206 Service and Teaching
- 220.127.116.11 Library Faculty and Off-Campus Programs
- 18.104.22.168 Modes of Instruction in Media and Academic Computing
- 22.214.171.124 Faculty Institutes
- 1.2.3 5.B.3 Availability of Policies
- 1.2.4 5.B.4 Participatory Planning
- 1.2.5 5.B.5 Networks Extend Information Resources
- 1.3 Standard 5.C – Facilities and Access
- 1.3.1 5.C.1 Availability of Information Resource Facilities
- 1.3.2 5.C.2 Cooperative Agreements
- 1.1 Standard 5.A – Purpose and Scope
- 2 Standard 5.D – Personnel and Management
- 3 Standard 5.E – Planning and Evaluation
- 3.1 Evaluating Information Services and Collections
- 3.2 Evaluation of Teaching and Instructional Programs: Information Technology Literacy
- 3.3 5.E.1 Participatory Planning
- 3.4 5.E.2 Planning Linkages
- 3.5 5.E.3 Evaluation and the Future
- 3.6 Conclusion: Holly's Generic Library Has Come to Fruition
- 3.7 Standard 5 Findings and Conclusions
- 4 Supporting Documentation
Standard 5 – Library and Information Resources
Standard 5.A – Purpose and Scope
The primary purpose for library and information resources is to support teaching, learning, and if applicable, research in ways consistent with, and supportive of, the institution’s mission and goals. Adequate library and information resources and services, at the appropriate level for degrees offered, are available to support the intellectual, cultural, and technical development of students enrolled in courses and programs wherever located and however delivered.
Supporting the Academic Mission of the College
Library and information resources at The Evergreen State College support students as they learn to reason and communicate about freely chosen inquiries whose outcomes remain to be discovered or created (Smith, Standard 2). Library and information resources at Evergreen must therefore balance the open-ended demands of free inquiry with the need for stability, security, and efficiency in systems and services. Historically, the Library has been well funded when compared to many public baccalaureates, in recognition of the extraordinary demands of open-ended inquiry and independent study. All library and information resources are shaped by the primary mission of teaching and providing state-of-the-art facilities for academic programs and individual students in this interdisciplinary, liberal arts curriculum. Strong collaboration among library, computing and media staff, faculty, and administration assures the development of the library and information resources as centers for teaching and learning.
The Founding Vision of the Library: Any Medium, Any Location
In 1969, when the founding dean of Library Services James Holly wrote his “Position Paper No. 1,” he proposed a model which he called the generic library, in some ways anticipating the concept of today's virtual library. “By generic I include man’s [sic] recorded information, knowledge, folly, and wisdom in whatever form put down, whether in conventional print, art forms, magnetic tape, laser storage, etc. By generic, I also eliminate physical boundaries such as [a] specific building or portion limited and identified as ‘the library.’” Holly's vision motivated many aspects of library, media, and computer services, but proved in many ways untenable due to technical and budgetary constraints and because the college community expressed traditional longings for a bounded space. Today, laptops and networked data are ubiquitous and most students expect remote access to information resources, regardless of medium. Technology, as well as community values, have caught up with Holly’s founding vision, and Evergreen's library and learning resources now include all media, distributed to almost any location. Display of networked and audiovisual information now brings information technology to almost any classroom on campus. Active involvement in new consortia has led to quick access to expanded collections and information resources from around the region. Academic programs and students off-campus have access to rich, academically sound journal holdings. A wide selection of digitized media applications and advanced media labs provide access to media production. Increasingly seamless access to media, computing, and traditional information resources benefits all students. At the same time, the physical library has expanded its role as a social and intellectual space and provides an increasingly hospitable center for learning and gatherings of all kinds. A $22-million remodel connected previously disparate areas and created a more cohesive information-technology wing, providing one central entrance for the Library, Media Services, the Computer Center, and the Computing and Communications offices.
Functions and Facilities Covered in Standard 5
Reflecting these developments, Standard 5 considers information resources and services from several disparate administrative units: Library Services, including Media Services (administratively part of the Academic division); Academic Computing (administratively part of the Finance and Administration division); and the Computer Applications Lab (CAL) (administratively part of the academic division, with a historical role supporting the science curriculum). The phrase "library and information resources" in Standard 5 should be understood to refer to these units collectively, while comments about separate areas will use more specific language such as the Library, Media Services, the CAL, or Academic Computing. Occasional references to Computing and Communications will address technology infrastructure when relevant to instructional and academic support functions.
The information resources offered and supported by the Library, Academic Computing, and the CAL represent facilities and functions commonly found in libraries and computer centers elsewhere in academia. The Media Services section of the Library requires some explanation, as its role and location in the institution are unique. Media Services provides not only the usual audiovisual support for instruction, but also extensive collections and facilities in support of media production by students across the curriculum. Media production labs, a large circulating collection of portable media equipment, and extensive instruction represent activities, facilities, and functions which will not be found within the library at most institutions. Some media arts, communications or education departments might provide some such services to students of their curriculum, but not the library, and certainly not for general use. In the context of an interdisciplinary college, and in the light of the original ideal of the generic library, these services are provided through the Library in order to assure cross-curricular access and opportunity for students from anywhere in the curriculum, whether those students are studying media or simply wish to communicate academic content using media beyond print.
5.A.1 Sufficiency of Information Resources and Services
The institution’s information resources and services include sufficient holdings, equipment, and personnel in all of its libraries, instructional media and production centers, computer centers, networks, telecommunication facilities, and other repositories of information to accomplish the institution’s mission and goals.
Throughout this study, library and information resources will be found to be strongly linked via face-to-face collaboration and consultation with faculty, staff, and students. These interconnections, within a flat organizational structure, assure constant feedback and redevelopment of services and facilities. Library funding generally compares very well with public institutions and correlates strongly to average funding for private liberal arts peers, peers with whom our use statistics compare favorably. An external assessment performed by Edutech described budgetary support for information technology as comparable to that of institutions with similar missions. There are no comparable institutions for studying the large activity of cross-curricular media services; however, advocacy from both the cross-curricular perspective of the Library and from the specific needs of the media faculty help ensure support. Rapid expansion in information technology access and aspirations have led to changes in personnel allocation and expertise and will continue to make increasing demands on a staff and faculty already stretched in many areas.
For a description of facilities, see Major Facilities and Areas 1 & 2 of the Edutech Information Environment Review. For holdings and equipment, see Standard 5.B.1. For personnel, see Standard 5.D.1. For evaluation of budgetary support, see Standard 5.D.6.
5.A.2 Sufficiency of Core Collection and Related Resources
The institution’s core collection and related information resources are sufficient to support the curriculum.
Broad institutional support for cross-curricular library and information services has historically generated sufficient institutional budgetary support for core collections and facilities. During the study period, inflation and budget cuts reduced base budgets for local monograph collections. Non-state resources bridged some of the gap without building the base budget permanently. Consortial agreements created opportunities for cost-effective collective purchases of serials and for efficient resource sharing, resulting in better support for the intensive work by individual students.
Collection Development, see 5.B.1 and 5.B.5
5.A.3 Education Program Drives Resources and Services
Information resources and services are determined by the nature of the institution’s educational programs and the locations where programs are offered.
Strong connections to the curriculum inform all library and information services. A distinctive library rotation system connects the library and teaching faculty in the shared project of curriculum and program planning. Teaching alliances between media services professionals and media faculty determine the character of media services. A strong liaison system connects Academic Computing instructors and services with teaching faculty. Meanwhile, a very experienced staff with substantial managerial responsibilities manages day-to-day library services while implementing services in response to the new opportunities advancing information technology affords. (See Standard 5.B.2 - Teaching and Instruction).
Information technology planning and governance are discussed in Area 5 (Planning and Governance) of the Edutech Information Environment Review. The study notes that planning is collaborative and responsive to academic needs, and could be strengthened through a stronger role for the Information Technology Collaborative Hive (ITCH).
Standard 5.B – Information Resources and Services
Information resources and services are sufficient in quality, depth, diversity, and currency to support the institution’s curricular offerings.
5.B.1 Equipment and Materials to Support the Educational Program
Equipment and materials are selected, acquired, organized, and maintained to support the educational program.
Collection Development Procedures & Methods
The Library faculty develops collections to support Evergreen's changeable interdisciplinary curriculum without the usual benefit of departmental allocation or structures. The librarians build collections and vendor profiles on the basis of their work as both library and teaching faculty (see 5.B.2), work which involves full-time teaching, faculty governance, extensive collegial engagement with the teaching faculty, and affiliation with planning units. The curriculum committee is the faculty as a whole, and develops the curriculum in curricular planning units, curriculum retreats, and governance groups. The Library faculty's overall knowledge of the curriculum is strengthened by teaching faculty who rotate into the Library and lavish their attention on areas of the collection related to their disciplinary expertise. Finally, librarians honor most requests from individuals for additions to the collection, working from the fact that free inquiry and individual research are central to the Library’s mission.
In the past, the Library has struggled to satisfy incidental research demands outside the boundaries defined by the core, repeating curriculum. The substantial part of the curriculum which varies from year to year, the significant amount of work by independent contract students (almost 1,300 independent study contracts in 2006-07), and the opportunity for intensive individual projects within full-time, multi-quarter programs have all driven demand for specialized materials outside the core collection. Resource sharing and large, shared purchases, all made efficient because of networking technology, have eradicated this problem, although budget cuts and inflation create some difficulties keeping the core collection current. The budget for core monograph purchases has been supplemented with allocations from non-state resources in order to help bridge this gap. See 5.B.5 below.
Close work with the curriculum and faculty also informs the development of media facilities and services. Media staff attend the Expressive Arts planning unit meetings, in particular the Moving Image subgroup. Budgetary processes for equipment purchase and operating costs include multiple avenues for consideration of educational program needs. Through the planning units, needs are communicated to the academic budget planners. Through the Library, cross-curricular media demands are communicated to the academic budget planners. Through the ITCH, cross-unit needs are coordinated and passed up to the campus-wide budget process. These three avenues help ensure that the budget process addresses both broad and specific curricular demands for media.
Some stresses develop. Like the Library, Media Services serves the entire academic community, from programs to individuals. And, like the Library, Media Services strains under the pressure of answering the needs of independent study, as well as a fluid curriculum. Students working on independent media productions compete with Expressive Arts programs for scarce resources, from equipment to laboratories to teaching staff. In order to balance these competing demands, Media Services requires students and faculty to submit media request forms, which are reviewed by the Media Services manager and the head of Instruction Media, who allocate resources, both human and technological. Independent contract forms include a question about the need for special equipment or facilities, which serves as a safety net for screening intensive media use. In these ways Media Services assures that students embarking on media studies do so with appropriate support. The Expressive Arts planning unit also instituted a Student Originated Studies (SOS) group contract in media to assure that students have consistent access to facilities and instructional support as they pursue their independent projects.
Information Technology Equipment & Facilities
The Edutech Information Environment Review includes equipment in its discussion of technological facilities in Area 1 of the report. The report states, "Computing, networking and information technology facilities at Evergreen are extensive and impressive. In most cases, Evergreen facilities are at or near standards for similar institutions, and in some cases surpass them. However, these standards are a moving target, and there are areas in which the college will probably have to make upgrades in the near future." The report lauded the computer labs, classroom technology, and access to computers. Recommended improvements were to extend wireless to the entire campus and permanently fund a replacement cycle for equipment.
5.B.2 Teaching and Instruction
Library and information resources and services contribute to developing the ability of students, faculty, and staff to use the resources independently and effectively.
Defining Information Technology Literacy
Standard 2 links the five foci and six expectations of an Evergreen education to the idea of reflexive thinking. "Reflexive thinking begins with a question, an interrogation of the world, and an encounter with the other. As such it involves the student in the whole process of substantive learning about subjects, disciplines and methods that is the standard domain of learning. But reflexivity is the capacity that a learner has to think about the situation and conditions that underlie her own personal and collective experience of thinking and knowing." (See reflexive thinking). This work is engaged and supported through the broad and deep resources of the collections and instruction within the library and information resources.
The professional literature and practice of librarianship defines information literacy as a reflective process. To be clear, a reflective process considers, evaluates, synthesizes, and in general, engages information discovered through research. In contrast, a reflexive process goes on to consider one's own learning and knowledge as influenced through exposure to the information under consideration. According to Jeremy J. Shapiro and Shelley K. Hughes, in their article entitled 'Information Literacy as a Liberal Art', information literacy should "be conceived more broadly as a new liberal art that extends from knowing how to use computers and access information to critical reflection on the nature of information itself, its technical infrastructure, and its social, cultural and end even philosophical context and impact..."
The information literacy curriculum includes:
- Tool literacy - The ability to use print and electronic resources including software and online resources.
- Resource literacy - The ability to understand the form, format, location, and methods for accessing information resources.
- Social-structural literacy - Knowledge of how information is socially situated and produced, including understanding the scholarly publishing process.
- Research literacy - The ability to understand and use information technology tools to carry out research, including the use of discipline-related software and online resources.
- Publishing literacy - The ability to produce a text or multimedia report of research results.
ITL in the Context of Holly's Generic Library
Information literacy at Evergreen is itself a reflexive practice, in addition to being central to the process of reflexive thinking in the broader context of undergraduate education at Evergreen. That is, the student uses library and information resources to put herself in relation to information and thinking from a variety of sources and further, reflects about herself and her learning as she researches and learns. Within the context of library and information resources as understood and managed at Evergreen, this literacy includes not just print scholarship, but media and computing, to become not just information literacy but Information Technology Literacy (ITL). Reflection upon information includes reflection upon the nature and role of the tools themselves. Reflexive thinking includes the relation of the user to the information and the tools.
Thus, in order to assure that students have the skills to communicate about their open inquiries and the resources to support deeply reflexive thinking, library and information resources take a broad role in the curriculum. Two of the “Six Expectations of an Evergreen Graduate” relate directly to commitment by the library and information resources to help students achieve intellectual independence, creativity, and critical acumen. Expectation Two states that our graduates will communicate creatively and effectively; Expectation Four, that our graduates apply qualitative, quantitative, and creative modes of inquiry appropriately to practical and theoretical problems across the disciplines. Not only should literate students read and write astutely, they also should access, view, critique, and produce media and writing that is eloquent and complete. In this way, digital scholarship merges seamlessly with individual and formal educational goals, just as print scholarship has in the past.
Cross-Curricular Media Instruction
Library and information resources support ITL as an agenda for students across programs, disciplines, and media. Library and information resources staff and faculty collaborate with teaching teams as they instruct students in media and students who create films, multimedia, or musical works for programs or for independent study. These are the challenges of the "freely chosen inquiry," challenges that cannot all be met at all times. However, the location of Media Services administratively and physically within Library Services is meant to ensure that media studies and media production are supported appropriately both within the programs that media faculty teach and elsewhere in the inquiries of students. The spread of entry-level media applications into the general-use computer labs increases access to media production across the curriculum.
Although library and information resources instructors work to fuse teaching with program content, students are nevertheless able to access any media application or information technology beyond or without considering program content. Likewise, many programs focus entirely on technical skill building, without any formal attempt to link these practices to disciplinary content. And in other areas of the curriculum, such as the Culture, Text, and Language planning unit, critical media and information studies are often taught in a theoretical mode, without hands-on media production—the thing itself. The point is that when skills are valorized over content, or when theory ignores practice, students neglect concrete critical reflection on how technology impacts the message, the creators, the audience, or society. However, Holly's generic library model, the founding principle for library and information resources at Evergreen, has emphasized and counterbalanced the tendency to isolate skills from content. Students who read texts expect to write as well; why should they view media and not expect to create it? Early on, a rotating faculty member who helped link instruction with critical media studies and with interdisciplinary programs directed Media Services. Library and information resources continue to struggle to advocate for the critical study of media and information technology across the curriculum.
Academic computing also provides access to and instruction in information technologies through a balance of specialized and open computing facilities. With the migration of many media applications to commonly available personal computer platforms, instruction and facilities to support entry-level media production have spread to academic computing and even to the Library proper.
Library and information resources faculty and staff instruct and teach in multiple modes, from basic skills instruction to more complex, content-driven teaching by faculty and professionals in the curriculum. In addition, the teaching faculty contribute substantively and collaboratively to planning and implementing information services, collections, and policies. This dynamic collaboration between the teaching faculty and the library and information resources has shaped the primary mission to support inquiry-based education. Each area within library and information resources has developed structures to connect teaching and instruction closely to the faculty, the curriculum, and the academic mission of the college. Utilization, satisfaction, and curricular surveys demonstrate the breadth and effectiveness of this work (See Planning and Evaluation 5.E).
Faculty Librarians and Library Teaching
Evergreen requires rotation between the librarians and the teaching faculty. Briefly stated, faculty librarians rotate out of the Library to teach full time on a regular basis and, in exchange, teaching faculty rotate into the Library to serve as librarians providing reference, instruction, and collection development. (See Pedersen pp. 41-44 for more discussion of this system). Faculty who rotate into the Library leave with updated skills for developing information literacy within their programs and teams across the curriculum. Library faculty develop their subject specialties and enhance their ability to work across pedagogical and disciplinary realms. Perpetual faculty-wide interactions in faculty governance and team-teaching reinforce the strong connections between the library faculty and the teaching faculty. Librarians know the faculty as colleagues and teaching faculty know the librarians (probably the only basis for widespread and effective library instruction in a curriculum without requirements). Teaching teams also spread effective library instruction practices as experienced teaching faculty introduce their new faculty teammates to their library colleagues and the teaching they offer. Most new faculty also bring updated information technology skills and experience to share with their colleagues.
A loose liaison system links each librarian with a subset of the curriculum, based on subject expertise, planning unit affiliation, and personal alliances. Faculty librarians provide a wide array of library and information technology-related teaching. One-time workshops designed to engage sources particular to the research projects within an academic program represent the most common format. Librarians and teaching faculty design these workshops with the assumption that the skills imparted are embedded in the interests and needs of the program learning community. At a minimum, the faculty for the program usually 1) create a research assignment which informs and motivates the students’ work; 2) attend the research workshop and participate, adding their expertise and/or questions; 3) provide the library liaison with a syllabus and a copy of the assignment and a list of the topics students are considering; and 4) ask the students to begin considering their topic before attending the workshop so they are primed to begin actual research during the workshop.
Librarians teach workshops on research most frequently in the graduate programs, the sciences, and the off-campus programs. The teaching models for these more extended situations vary according to the library faculty involved and the role in the curriculum, and they evolve significantly year to year. Each year, library faculty affiliate deeply with a few such programs, meeting weekly to create stepped learning conjoined with research assignments. For documents exemplifying this teaching, see Forensics Syllabus and Chemistry Health Professions Project. During several academic years, an information technology seminar linked library internship opportunities with a hands-on Web technology workshop. In that model, a small group of students explored contemporary questions in the world of rapid digitization and its social implications. They paralleled that study with real library work and Web production practice, including wikis and Web pages designed to support library functions. The seminar and workshop have provided a venue for library faculty, staff, and Academic Computing instructors to gather and consider both the past and future of information technologies. See the syllabi for the programs Still Looking (fall, winter, spring), Information Landscapes (fall, winter, spring), and Common Knowledge (fall, winter, spring). Each year, one librarian also offers research methods through the evening and weekend curriculum.
In-depth, extended library-related teaching within programs and service to off-campus and Evening and Weekend programs can be a challenge in the context of a reduced core of library faculty. During the self-study period, one faculty line was cut during budget reductions. This causes significant stress on the quality and quantity of instruction the area is able to provide.
Library Faculty as Service Providers
Library faculty see themselves primarily as teachers. They tend to understand the services of the Library in the context of teaching and learning, specifically teaching as it actually happens in the Evergreen curriculum. Thus, they do not tend to work from externally defined "best practices," nor do they function in a reactive mode. They take a proactive approach to the work, suggesting tools and strategies for designing library instruction and finding the intellectual work in the world of research instruction. They position themselves to work across administrative as well as curricular boundaries and sustain an important role in the crossroads of traditional research methods, contemporary information technology, and the world of the curriculum and their teaching colleagues.
Service and Teaching
The faculty librarians have transformed the reference desk into a teaching space, which goes well beyond traditional service models. For this reason, there is generally a librarian at the desk during the hours the Library is open to the public. Each contact between a librarian and a patron represents an opportunity to teach and learn. In collections, Web page design, signage, collection organization, and creation of virtual services, the librarians ask not just what is easiest or matches the expectations of inexperienced users, but what can be taught through the new design, service, or collection. For example, broad aggregate databases have been purchased because they are cost effective, but the librarians also emphasize and teach comparatively complex digitized indexes, which refer students more deeply into the discipline-based literature of their inquiries. As discussed throughout this document, library and information resources are designed, planned, taught, and supported in the context of college-wide teaching and learning.
Library Faculty and Off-Campus Programs
Library support for the two major off-campus offerings, the Tacoma and the Reservation-Based Community-Determined programs, focuses heavily on instruction, with additional support from networked technology, including specialized Web pages for these programs. See services for Reservation-Based students and services for Tacoma-based students. Students of these programs have limited access to the physical library and must be alerted to the many high-quality resources available to them online through the Library. End-of-program reports show very high engagement with information technology in these programs (See End-of-program Review Results for 2006-07 - Information Technology Literacy by Planning Unit). Most years, librarians work closely with the Research Methods class at Tacoma, providing laboratory-based instruction on location several weeks per quarter. As of 2007-08, this work has taken on a more formalized structure and has developed into credit-generating research classes.
Library instruction at the upper-division off-campus sites of the Reservation-Based Community-Determined programs has varied widely year-by-year. Recently, the program has focused on building library methods into the lower-division bridge curriculum, which has not involved the library faculty directly. Reservation-based programs report 100% teaching and use of library and Internet research in 2007; however, this work has not engaged the Library's holdings or services significantly. Rebuilding this connection should be a high priority, and a planned faculty rotation from a former director of the reservation-based program will be an opportunity to do so. Perusal of the Achievements list for the self-study period demonstrates that almost every development supports distant access to collections and services and thus the off-campus programs.
Modes of Instruction in Media and Academic Computing
In all major computer and media labs, staff instructors provide group instruction designed to support the needs of specific academic programs, covering particular applications and tools relevant to the disciplines involved. Media and computing instructors teach workshops in different spaces and in different modes, depending on the discipline and the technology. There are no constraints upon which facilities may be used. In one quarter, a science program might have workshops in the Computer Center focusing on blogs, a math workshop using Excel in the Computer Applications Lab, a session on video documentation for field research in the Multimedia Lab, and a library research workshop in one of the Computer Center's general-purpose labs. In this way, academic programs leverage staff expertise and facilities as needed.
Teaching faculty must be able to easily identify and contact the appropriate staff member to coordinate computer instruction, which may require significant logistical support such as lab scheduling, equipment checkout, server space, password access, personnel scheduling, and other details. In Academic Computing, program liaisons work with faculty to coordinate how programs will teach technology. For instance, the staff liaison helps set up file shares and Web spaces and schedules and teaches workshops. In Media Services, the head of instructional media provides a central location for faculty and students requesting instructional support in media to connect with appropriate media instructors and to schedule facilities and instruction. The Media Services staff work with faculty to design and integrate media into their programs. Media Services staff meet regularly with media faculty in the Expressive Arts planning unit so they can develop facilities, plan for access, and foster integration of media into academic programs.
Students who work independently on media or computing projects or who decide to tackle media projects within non-media oriented programs also receive many forms of instructional support. Academic Computing offers regularly scheduled technology workshops, which are open to all. In addition, Evergreen students can access Lynda.com, which tutors students in software applications and programming languages. The Library recently subscribed to Safari Books Online, which supports the computer science curriculum and addresses technical inquiries from students across the curriculum. Academic Computing began a computing wiki in 2006-07 which hosts approximately 2,000 pages of instructions and tutorials and which continues to expand. Increasingly, students, faculty, and staff rely on the Academic Computing wiki to stay abreast of technologies hosted on campus.
Any student may access most media-production facilities and check out portable media equipment once they have completed relevant hands-on training sessions called proficiencies. Media instructors run hundreds of these quick, skills-focused instructional sessions annually, which serve thousands of students, ensure proper use of the equipment, and provide supportive technical background for systems. The number of formal instructional sessions provided to programs has doubled since 2000, suggesting the rapidly expanding use and breadth of college-supported media technology. Finally, the Evening and Weekend Studies curriculum provides a coherent, regular pathway for learning more complex media-production processes.
Like the library faculty, media instructors teach in a variety of modes: full-time, part-time, introductory, intensive, general, sustained, intermittent, specialized, individual, within programs, or collaboratively in small groups. Many of the media staff are artists, professionals, and faculty in their own right, with Master of Fine Arts degrees in their fields. They teach photography, electronic music, Web design, and digital imaging as adjuncts in Evening and Weekend Studies and in Extended Education. Media staff who teach as adjunct faculty are often called to teach full time as visiting artists. Their contributions to the part- and full-time curriculum are substantial and sustained, some of them having taught for more than twenty years. Their work supports the Expressive Arts. It assures access and instruction for students who do not consider themselves artists but who want to engage in technologies that constitute important developing communication media and also define the visual aesthetics of science, history, political science, psychology, and other narratives. Additionally, Photo, Electronic Media, and Media Loan staff annually teach as field supervisors for up to eight student interns who are critical to the effective functioning of labs and services. These students typically not only gain high-level technical production skills, but also develop instructional, collaborative, and administrative experience by working closely with students, faculty, and technical staff. Finally, all media staff sponsor many individual contracts, which provide opportunities for students who have identified intensive individual inquiries that are not supported in the curriculum at large. In general, media staff are central to the success of media-based programs and are viewed as colleagues by the Expressive Arts faculty, whose programs they support. These working relationships form the backbone of Media Services.
As described thus far, library and information resources instructors regularly work with, instruct, and support the teaching faculty through individual collaboration. In addition, they design and teach several faculty institutes each summer. Faculty institutes create valuable connections among faculty, library, media, and academic computing instructors. Recent information technology institutes have focused on specific applications such as teaching statistics with Excel, using online collaborative tools to foster learning communities, or creating program Web pages. Some years, substantive discussions of information technology literacy as opposed to hands-on training have been offered. During institutes, faculty are often afforded paid time for self-directed work that focuses on their program planning. In these instances, faculty evaluate technology, practice using it, and plan how to incorporate applications into their programs.
5.B.3 Availability of Policies
Policies, regulations, and procedures for systematic development and management of information resources, in all formats, are documented, updated, and made available to the institution’s constituents.
The Web provides a venue for all policies, regulations, and procedures for all information resources and services.
5.B.4 Participatory Planning
Opportunities are provided for faculty, staff, and students to participate in the planning and development of the library and information resources and services.
Faculty, staff, and students participate in the planning and development of library information resources and services. The college community values face-to-face communication and formal procedures for consultation are minimal. All learning and information resources staff and faculty receive and welcome direct requests and suggestions. As an example, good hiring represents an important decision determining how library and information services evolve and prosper. Hiring processes are broadly consultative. Committees with representation from different work units interview and recommend for all staff positions. Students, staff, and faculty representatives join in hiring committees for any major positions, especially those of administrators and faculty. These hiring processes routinely include public presentations by the candidates, which are announced to the entire college community to allow input from staff, faculty, and students.
More broadly, collaborative work with teaching faculty and other clients drives the design and planning for almost all instructional and technical support. Face-to-face planning and direct engagement with teaching faculty in a program-by-program context defines the work of library and information resources across all units (see Participatory Planning 5.E.1).
5.B.5 Networks Extend Information Resources
Computing and communications services are used to extend the boundaries in obtaining information and data from other sources, including regional, national, and international networks.
Consortial arrangements in the Orbis Cascade regional system offer Summit, a resource-sharing system that makes it possible to satisfy almost any book and most media requests generated by the individualistic interests of students working on independent projects. The Summit system includes thirty-five academic libraries from Oregon and Washington and delivers resources within two or three days. Students also use many highly specialized materials from periodicals databases, which have expanded the number of journal subscriptions Evergreen holds eight to nine times over the self-study period. This enhancement is largely due to the Cooperative Library Project (CLP), a state-funded resource-sharing project among the four-year Washington state baccalaureates.
Consortial purchases have reduced per-title costs dramatically and have strengthened areas of the curriculum not necessarily the focus of a core liberal arts collection. For example, psychology, education, and business were heavily emphasized in the most recent round of shared purchasing by CLP. Finally, ILLiad, the interlibrary loan system, brings journal articles to the students' mailboxes and e-mail accounts within a few days. There are almost no discernible limits to accessing published information for any researcher except those who need to present within twenty-four hours. Effective campus networks supported by Computing and Communication's technical support staff make this possible. College-wide steps that have made efficient resource sharing and online information possible have included implementing the Banner student records system and establishing e-mail as the official student communications medium.
Standard 5.C – Facilities and Access
The institution provides adequate facilities for library and information resources, equipment, and personnel. These resources, including collections, are readily available for use by the institution’s students, faculty, and staff on the primary campus and where required off-campus.
5.C.1 Availability of Information Resource Facilities
Library and information resources are readily accessible to all students and faculty. These resources and services are sufficient in quality, level, breadth, quantity, and currency to meet the requirements of the educational program.
The Edutech Information Environment Review specifically considered networking, telecommunications, and other information technology relevant to accessibility. The campus network was lauded as "solid and reliable." The network itself is described technically in Area 1 of the report. Expansion of wireless access from 75% to the entire campus was recommended; this work is proceeding and has the budgetary support to continue into the future. Most classrooms have been networked with display capability, spreading library and information technology access to large portions of the curriculum. This changes the presumptions of the faculty and students and greatly increases the frequency with which social software, digitized presentations, and other multi-media information technology is incorporated in programs. The Edutech report also recommended establishing at least one dedicated teleconferencing space for general use, which is planned within the Center for Creative and Applied Media (CCAM). According to Edutech, "student access to computers at Evergreen does not seem to be a problem."
The Information Technology Wing
LIR Facilities and Services Visibly Interconnect
With the generic library as a foundation and the interdisciplinary curriculum as the context, merged collections and services build upon an alternative past. Library and information resources thus collaborate actively across academic and administrative departmental boundaries. The major remodel, implementing a newly consolidated Information Technology Wing, substantially strengthened opportunities for connecting services, facilities, and staff. One central, broad entrance now provides access to the Library, the Computer Center, Media Loan and the stairs to Electronic Media, Photo Services and Computing and Communications. See Consultant Pre-Remodel Report for an assessment of facility requirements produced before the project. For further detail, extensive documents describing the project are available in the documents room.
More Teaching and Study Spaces
The ideal of collaborative learning shaped the remodel. Shared study spaces predominate, whether open area study tables, grouped lounge furniture, pod-shaped arrangements in labs, or small group study and media viewing rooms. Wireless access allows informal group work around personal or library-owned laptops. Additional laboratory spaces provide easier scheduling for program work and more computers for individuals when classes do not use the labs. Limited quiet study areas provide an alternative for the solitary scholar; at the same time, small group work is facilitated and encouraged. Overall, the Information Technology Wing has shed barren hallways and utilitarian desks in favor of lounge areas and comfortable study spaces. Overstuffed couches and chairs, large tables, task lighting, and more room for collections all contribute to the conviviality that informs shared inquiry.
Hospitable Spaces and Blended Access
Art exhibitions invite patrons into lounge and study areas and help define the Library as a public space. The new basement lounge, affectionately dubbed the "Library Underground," hosts frequent campus gatherings and public readings, although flooding (a new issue since the remodel) disrupted the area several times in 2006-07. Groups from across campus meet, study, and teach in library spaces, which are open to all and where food and drink have always been allowed. The Sound and Image Library (SAIL) media collections are prominently located in the reference area, where SAIL staff work closely with the reference librarians. The newly established Assisted Technology Lab (ATL) conjoins the SAIL and has become a vital meeting place for students to work and show their art and media productions. Again, SAIL and reference staff provide service and technical support for ATL patrons. As the physical reference collection continues to shrink, reference, the SAIL, the ATL, and Circulation will continue forming a more blended and prominent shared public presence.
More General Access Lab Facilities
Rapid developments in networked information technology have blurred between general and specialized technology labs. The main computer center includes many specialized scientific software packages such as ArcGIS and Mathematica, while common graphic manipulation software, such as Photoshop and Illustrator, appear in the CAL. Similarly, the Computer Center supports high-level statistics applications such as R, as well as digital music editing. The library computers provide basic Office applications and general Web access in addition to library-specific searches, but specific library computers also provide GIS, Dreamweaver, Photoshop, assistive/adaptive technology, and scanning applications, while the SAIL provides multiple stations for basic media dubbing, transfer, and editing. Switching to a single user domain and sign-on means simpler, more consistent access to networked resources across campus. The Digital Imaging and Multimedia facilities provide applications for advanced media production, but are open to all students. Some specialty labs have self-contained resources, such as large format printers or applications requiring more sophisticated hardware. However, the primary distinction among labs is the level of expertise and specialized knowledge of the staff. Students benefit when they know the specialized character of a lab means there will be more skilled assistance.
5.C.2 Cooperative Agreements
In cases of cooperative arrangements with other library and information resources, formal documented agreements are established. These cooperative relationships and externally provided information sources complement rather than substitute for the institution’s own adequate and accessible core collection and services.
Despite greatly expanded information access through Summit and shared purchasing agreements, the Library continues strong support for the core collection within budgetary constraints created by budget cuts and inflation. Over time, Summit circulation data will provide specific reports on areas of the collection where students and faculty consistently or repeatedly demonstrate the need for more depth. Additionally, the Orbis Cascade Alliance is working on shared collection development guidelines to help design complementary collections.
Standard 5.D – Personnel and Management
Personnel are adequate in number and in areas of expertise to provide services in the development and use of library and information resources.
5.D.1 Sufficiency of Staffing
The institution employs a sufficient number of library and information resources staff to provide assistance to users of the library and to students at other learning resources sites.
The chart below suggests that library and information resources staffing is similar to that of comparable public institutions, falling between the averages of peer public liberal arts colleges (COPLAC) and the larger regional universities in the state (WA Regionals in the table below). Note that Evergreen (TESC) and other public college library staffing averages are significantly below the staffing for groups made up largely of private Ivies, DEEP (Documenting Effective Educational Practices), CTCL (Colleges That Change Lives), and CIEL (Consortium of Innovative Environments for Learning).
(N.B. The staff count for Evergreen has been halved since approximately 50% of Library and Media Services staffing is devoted to Media Services production, instruction, and equipment check-out. At other institutions, these services, if they are offered at all, reside in academic departments such as media arts or education.)
The Edutech Information Environment Review discusses staffing in Area 3. The report shows staffing to be average when compared to similar institutions in terms of size, mission, and culture.
Because library use at Evergreen compares favorably to more heavily staffed private liberal arts colleges and because all areas sustain a substantial instructional role, there are areas of strain. The rapid expansion of technology-driven services and collections also creates stresses, despite reallocation of staff as media and technologies shift. Following are the primary areas of concern:
- Support for rapidly expanded classroom technology, an additional demand on top of general institutional growth
- Staffing for greater focus on curriculum planning and engagement with faculty in Academic Computing
- Staffing to support expanding electronic library resource collections (ordering, contracts, management, evaluation, etc.)
- Weakened presence of faculty librarians due to the loss of one line in budget cuts during the self-study period
5.D.2 Staff Qualifications
Library and information resources staff include qualified professional and technical support staff, with required specific competencies, whose responsibilities are clearly defined.
The balance of librarians to other library staff is weighted toward non-professionals when compared to other liberal arts college libraries. Further, as librarians rotate into the full-time curriculum, they temporarily leave behind reference work, management, administration, and collection development. Any sustained work, such as Web-page development, is interrupted by these regular absences. Further, full-time teaching faculty rotate into the Library as neophytes who need training and who present widely disparate skills, abilities, and ambitions. Beyond the system of rotation, with its concomitant duties, librarians are contractually obligated to participate in college governance and curriculum planning, not to mention their own scholarly projects and sabbaticals. Librarians have nine-month contracts and several are absent during the summer sessions when the Library is minimally staffed. These organizational facts mean that Evergreen has no managerial class of librarians. Instead, the team of faculty librarians share management with staff. Paraprofessionals head almost all departments, including Circulation, Government Publications, Periodicals, Technical Services, and Acquisitions. Their year-round presence and regular workdays provide consistency for development of services, maintenance of collections, public service, and supervision of classified staff and student workers. In this collaborative environment, staff often lead the way in adopting new services. The tremendous commitment by the staff grounds the Library and makes it an ideal teaching environment.
Most library faculty carry both subject and library master's credentials in order to support their teaching as well as their role as professional librarians (see CVs of professional library staff).
As is the case with librarians, many media staff and instructors carry additional graduate training. Graduate degrees noted by staff other than librarians include three MPAs, two MFAs, an MA in art history, an MEd and EdS, an MSE (technical engineering), an MS in chemistry, and an MS in computer information systems. The library faculty, whose roles require substantial attention to teaching and governance outside the Library, must depend upon library staff as managers of major services and functions within the Library. Highly experienced staff with significant levels of responsibility keep the Library not just open, but anticipating and embracing change and new opportunities for service (see 5.B.2 Modes of Instruction in Media and Academic Computing for a discussion of media instructors as artists and teaching faculty).
In the realm of technical support, the Edutech report recommended assigning "staff responsibilities more specifically." More specific responsibilities and positions have been implemented in Technical Support Services. In the smaller units that provide distributed service and instruction such as the CAL, Academic Computing, and Media Services, this stricter delineation of support functions is not as clearly appropriate. Instead, it is often valuable for staff to be well versed on all or most aspects of the instruction or service required and in direct communication with the student, staff, or faculty who needs help. For example, the liaison system in Academic Computing assumes that in most cases a faculty member will receive all aspects of support from one liaison, or that the liaison will coordinate the support and instruction required.
All staff and faculty have engaged new skills as the information technology evolves. Multiple reclassifications have assured that staff job descriptions and pay scales match new expectations for technological expertise. Staff have also shifted the location of their work partially or entirely as budget cuts and new programs such as Summit and ILLiad have relocated the areas of greatest stress. Increased emphasis on technology in many positions has led to reclassifications and increases in salaries for some staff, resulting in compression of salaries for some managers. A campus-wide study of exempt salaries is expected to address this issue.
5.D.3 Professional Growth
The institution provides opportunities for professional growth for library and information resources professional staff.
The library faculty are fully funded for professional activities through the central faculty professional development funds and policies, as well as through faculty institutes.
The remaining library and media services staff may request up to $500 annually from a pool of $2,500. Additional funding has been requested to bring the maximum benefit up to $750 in order to be consistent with the rest of academics, but this funding has not been granted thus far. Non-state funds from the Friends of the Library have been allocated for retreats and other staff meetings in order to compensate for some of this differential access to professional development funds.
Computing and Communications allocates more than $40,000 per year to support attendance of technical staff at technical conferences and trainings. This allows staff to expand their skills with current technology, increase their knowledge of new and advancing technology, and connect with peers from other institutions and experts in specific technologies. These training opportunities are critical to the team’s ability to support teaching and learning and to provide management of the college’s administrative systems (see CC Training Spreadsheet).
5.D.4 Organizational Structure
Library and information resources and services are organized to support the accomplishment of institutional mission and goals. Organizational arrangements recognize the need for service linkage among complementary resource bases (e.g., libraries, computing facilities, instructional media and telecommunication centers).
The fundamental organizing principle of library and information resources at Evergreen is that an interdisciplinary curriculum demands integrated services. Beyond that, the founding vision aspired to provide all media, in any location. Contemporary networked technology and the expectations of students now create a climate in which barriers between different information can and must be dissolved. For all these reasons, blended resources, facilities, and services predominate throughout Standard 5.
Media applications, which were once physically limited to Media Services, are now located, maintained, taught, and used throughout the facilities administered by Academic Computing and, to a degree, the Library. Similarly, library resources, which were once physically limited to the Library building, are now found anywhere within reach of the Web. Public computers, once found only in the Computer Center, are everywhere, as are privately-owned laptops. These shifts have accelerated during the past ten years and have changed the instructional roles of the areas and their relationship to the curriculum. Undoubtedly, library and information resources will continue to distribute their budgets, facilities, and staff to continue expanding access to information technology in academic programs and for individual students.
As technologies have changed, so have the relationships among the Library, Media Services, and Computing, which now share in the communal project of interconnecting, teaching, and supporting our information and technological resources. At this juncture, there seems little point in redesigning the administrative structures that oversee these areas because new relationships and responsibilities have evolved organically, based on need, demand, and interest, and will continue to do so. In order to ensure that these effective working relationships continue to develop, reinforcing connections such as joint staffing, deliberately planning together, and continuing involvement across the areas when hiring for new staff and particularly administrators must be emphasized.
The Edutech Information Environment Review suggested that the existing distributed structures were valuable, but recommended greatly enhancing the role and formal responsibilities of the ITCH to assure better planning in consonance with the mission of the college. See 5.E for fuller discussion of this recommendation. Edutech did not capture the centrality of the teaching role in major portions of the information resources environment at Evergreen. It is teaching and its development that assures the most important connections between the academic mission of the college, the educational program, and IT services of all kinds. While the Library and Media Services collaborate as a matter of course with Academic Computing, the real challenge remains: How to more thoroughly engage the teaching faculty across the curriculum in defining the role of information technology in the academic careers of our students.
5.D.5 Engagement in Curriculum Development
The institution consults library and information resources staff in curriculum development.
5.D.6 Library and Information Resources Budgets
The institution provides sufficient financial support for library and information resources and services, and for their maintenance and security.
Similar to staffing levels noted above, the Library is well funded compared to other regional public baccalaureates in the state (WA State Public in the table below) and peer public liberal arts libraries nationally (COPLAC in the table below). This comparatively rich funding reflects a historical recognition of the demands of open inquiry and independent research and the centrality of library research in a liberal arts education. Both funding and use rates closely match those of the private liberal arts libraries which predominate the DEEP (Documenting Effective Educational Practices), CTCL (Colleges That Change Lives) and CIEL (Consortium of Innovative Environments for Learning) peer groups. Thus, the general funding level for the Evergreen Library compares closely to that of institutions with similar missions, services, and roles within their institutions. For further discussion of the role of libraries in liberal arts colleges, see Comparing Use Statistics With Other Libraries (5.E). On the other hand, the library budget reported below includes Media Services (approximately 50% of library staffing falls into this category). Most libraries do not include any of the functions provided by Media Services at Evergreen. Instead, these functions, including media instruction, media-production facilities, media production to support college activities, and portable media production equipment check-out, if offered at all, would be part of an academic department such as education or media arts. If Media Services costs and services were not considered, then budgets are close to those of other public institutions, while use statistics are comparable to private liberal arts institutions.
|WA State Public||11,415||15||$373|
As budget cuts have reduced both staffing and collections, diversified revenue sources have become a high priority for library administration. Generous biennial infusions from the central academic budget have withered since earlier study periods. Indirect funds from activity grants to the faculty, major gifts from donors, book sales, and fines for lost or destroyed books have all increased to make up important non-state sources for collection development. The development of facilities and programming have been supported through major donors, with the library dean and the campus fundraisers focusing significant attention on these efforts.
The Edutech Information Environment Review discusses budgets in Area 4 and compares Evergreen to similar schools on the basis of physical environment, enrollment numbers, education goals and aspirations, residential nature, tuition, and governance structure. The review determined that Evergreen devotes considerable resources to IT and is consistent with its peers. In 2005, Evergreen’s expenditure on IT—expressed as a percentage of total institutional expenditures—was 6.7%. This percentage aligns with the 6.7% reported by Computing in a 2006 survey of public four-year colleges. The average for all institutions was 6.5%. Generally, IT is funded comparably to institutions with similar missions and culture. The report recommended that budget processes should be addressed that take into account the heavy demands upon replacement, operation, and maintenance as IT becomes ubiquitous in the classroom, as well as in labs.
Standard 5.E – Planning and Evaluation
Library and information resources planning activities support teaching and learning functions by facilitating the research and scholarship of students and faculty. Related evaluation processes regularly assess the quality, accessibility, and use of libraries and other information resource repositories and their services to determine the level of effectiveness in support of the educational program.
Evaluating Information Services and Collections
Assessments of Evergreen's library and information resources confirm support for the academic mission of the college as a public liberal arts college that expects a substantial number of students to engage in self-selected independent inquiry. Utilization patterns among Evergreen students correlate closely to the intensive use found among liberal arts colleges as opposed to lower use rates found among more comprehensive institutions.
Comparing Use Statistics With Other Libraries
In 2002, Washington's four-year public baccalaureate institutions implemented the Cascade resource-sharing consortium. This start-up provided an amazing new service and an opportunity to assess how rapidly a major new service might be implemented. Evergreen patrons borrowed 9,723 items during the first year, more than any other library, even though Evergreen was by far the smallest institution in the consortium at that time. Although ten times bigger than Evergreen, the University of Washington borrowed just under 7,000 items during the first year. The quick acceptance of Cascade testified to the efficient connection between the Library, library instruction, and the teaching faculty and curriculum at large.
Cascade became Orbis Cascade as the Washington and Oregon academic consortia merged. The new resource-sharing service, entitled Summit, provides ongoing comparative statistics. To continue comparison with the original members of Cascade, in 2006, Evergreen borrowed 4.52 items per FTE; almost four times the next heaviest user at 1.15 items borrowed per student. Although one might assume that small collection size drives this higher demand, the fact is that the Evergreen collection circulates at a high rate per student as well, according to federal Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) data.
IPEDS data for 2006 also provide the opportunity to compare use statistics of liberal arts colleges with Evergreen and with small master's-level universities (Carnegie Class Master's I), where strong distinctions appear again. When both circulation and interlibrary loan are counted, Evergreen circulates 31 items per FTE, liberal arts colleges nationally average 24 items per FTE, and the Master's I institutions circulate 8.34 per FTE.
The same dramatic distinction between liberal arts colleges and comprehensive institutions appears in the Summit consortium, which covers a full array of colleges and universities in Oregon and Washington. The following table lists the heaviest users from the member libraries, based upon their rates of use per FTE in 2006. Evergreen places high on the list, among the most highly ranked liberal arts colleges, which placed well above usage rates at more comprehensive institutions.
|Library||Number of Items Borrowed||FTE||Items/FTE|
|George Fox University||14,427||2,392||6.03|
|Lewis & Clark College||14,386||2,953||4.87|
|The Evergreen State College||16,118||4,200||3.84|
|University of Puget Sound||7,570||2,742||2.76|
|Seattle Pacific University||8,589||3,466||2.48|
|Western Oregon University||8,623||3,992||2.16|
|University of Portland||6,764||3,211||2.11|
|University of Oregon||38,796||18,880||2.05|
|Eastern Oregon University||4,620||2,306||2.00|
(Source: Summit Borrowing Statistics FY06)
Thus it is clear that, as of 2006, Evergreen library utilization mirrors the practices of liberal arts colleges. High-use rates also seem to reflect an academic emphasis on major student projects. For instance, at Reed College, which requires a senior thesis, the college library circulates or borrows 120 items per student. On the other hand, looking ahead, academic library use patterns are in a period of dramatic change. In 2007, the University of Washington implemented WorldCat Local, which provides immediate click-though prompts, leading the user from local catalog to Summit to some journal databases, periodical holdings, and interlibrary loan if appropriate. Summit use at the University of Washington doubled since implementation and interlibrary loan has also increased steeply. A large increase in borrowing at the University of Washington drives lending rates throughout the Summit system, but even more important, it suggests that discovery tools will dramatically increase usage without change in the library instructional program or academic practices. The Orbis Cascade consortium will soon be implementing WorldCat as the shared Summit catalog and many libraries in the consortium will undoubtedly implement WorldCat Local as their local library catalog as well.
Library and Computer Center Use & Satisfaction Rates
The data above demonstrate that library and information resources are comparatively well utilized. While high rates of use suggest something about effectiveness, surveys of popularity (frequency of use and satisfaction with use) provide further affirmation. Institutional Research routinely surveys alumni and students about campus resources. A summary of campus resource utilization (See Alumni Surveys 2002-2006 - Campus Resource Utilization) shows that during the six-year period, the Library and the computing facilities have been the top two most used campus facilities, trading off for first place. Alumni who were somewhat or very satisfied with the services have reported in at between 87% and 92% during the period surveyed.
Starting in 2006, the Evergreen Student Experience Survey (ESES) included questions about using library resources online and found that 85.2% of respondents use online library resources. Internal records also suggest phenomenal growth in online use of library resources. In 2000, when the Library subscribed to three aggregate journal databases (Proquest, Ebscohost and JSTOR), users conducted 80,000 searches. In 2007, among approximately 30 subscription databases, there were well over 250,000 searches. Careful review of variations of use from year to year reveals the direct impact a fluid curriculum has on database use. For example, Modern Language Association International Bibliography statistics are quite erratic; one major project in a large academic program explains a fivefold increase of use in one year. As JSTOR has developed into a more deeply and broadly multi-interdisciplinary tool, use statistics show a shift away from heavy dependence on the less scholarly aggregates. Extensive lobbying by faculty and librarians encourages this shift toward use of scholarly resources such as JSTOR. Use statistics for periodicals and databases drive selection and instruction planning. When use statistics are low for a database seen by the library faculty as critical to a discipline or of particularly high academic value, then library faculty focus instruction on that database whenever appropriate.
Media Services User Surveys
Institutional Research and Assessment added Media Services to its alumni survey of campus resource utilization starting in 2004. Since then, Media Services has been listed as the fifth most utilized resource. Alumni reported being somewhat or very satisfied at a rate of 89% and 90% in the two survey years (see Alumni Surveys 2002-2006 - Campus Resource Utilization).
The 2006 Evergreen Student Experience Survey (ESES)asked students about their use of Media Services, which showed 48% use of Media Loan (see Evergreen Student Experience Survey 2006 - Campus Resource Utilization - Olympia). A survey designed and implemented by staff member Lin Crowley supplemented this data. Crowley’s respondents reported an average satisfaction level for each service ranging from 3.07 to 3.62 (out of 4), which indicated that those who used current services were generally fairly satisfied with each of the services they use.
Although respondents to Crowley’s survey were predominantly active Media Services users, many respondents were uninformed about some services. Respondents supported investment in new digital technologies, but most were unaware of new or planned digital facilities. One clear conclusion of the survey is that visibility and access could be better for some services. Suggested improvements often focused on access, whether longer hours, more workshops, or more facilities. The survey project director recommended that future follow-up surveys be conducted to compare whether the reasons people use each service change and to evaluate the satisfaction levels for each type of services by patron types. See Evergreen Media Services Assessment Project
Evaluation of Teaching and Instructional Programs: Information Technology Literacy
The strong focus on teaching throughout library and information resources suggests the following questions: 1) In a college without requirements, does information technology instruction reach enough students to assure that the vast majority of graduates develop skills in support of their inquiries? 2) Which students are taught? Do students receive information technology instruction in an array of disciplinary and developmentally varied situations or is it happening only in pockets of the curriculum? 3) Is it working? Are students acquiring cross-curricular information technology, including media literacy?
How many students are taught?
About 3,000 students attend program-based library instruction workshops annually. These statistics exclude most cases of repeated contacts with the same student and thus represent very broad coverage of the student body.
From 2000 to 2007, Media Services offered a total of more than 1,500 workshops to approximately 156 academic programs. This number does not include the thousands of quick proficiencies also provided by the area. The number of formal media workshops given and students reached in 2005 and 2006 were each more than double the numbers provided in 2000. Workshops have increased along with new technologies, especially in Media Loan and in the new Multimedia and Digital Imaging Studio (DIS) labs.
Most instruction provided by Academic Computing and the Computer Applications Lab (CAL) serves specific academic programs. These sessions are represented in the following table:
|Computer Applications Lab||50/1,368||50/1,248||52/1,344|
Up until 2007, Academic Computing offered 30 to 40 general computer skills workshops per year in the Computer Center, attended by approximately 350 students. Professional staff focused these workshops on general technical skill building, independent of academic programs. Over time, fewer students were attending these workshops, presumably because more students come to college with strong technical skills and with specialized self-determined needs for support. In response to waning attendance, Academic Computing redesigned the workshops as student-centered support sessions to which students bring their questions or projects. This student-centered structure should more effectively meet the specific demands of students. Computing will evaluate the success of this reinvented structure. All areas of library, media, and computing find the strongest teaching and the greatest demand for instruction occurs in conjunction with programs.
The number of teaching contacts shows that library and information resources staff reach a large number of academic programs, but does not indicate which programs. End-of-program surveys conducted from 2001 to 2006 by the Office of Institutional Research and Assessment asked faculty, “Did your students use technology to present work, conduct research (including library research), or solve problems? If yes, How?” Not surprisingly, faculty answered that library/Internet research skills were the most commonly used at 50%, followed by some form of presentation technology. Ninety percent of programs reported some substantial use of information technology. (See Summary of Information Technology Literacy Emphasis in Programs)
In 2006-07, questions were revised to more accurately identify programs where there was intentional focus on teaching ITL: "Did your program include activities to improve information technology literacy?" With this more restrictive language, 70% of programs reported including ITL. (See End-of-program Review Results for 2006-07 - Information Technology Literacy by Planning Unit)
Further, in 2006-07, a follow-up question asked specifically which kind of technology was taught. Significantly different technologies predominate in different parts of the curriculum. No standard set of applications comes into play, although as of 2006-07, presentation technologies (at 42% of all programs) have increased by 70% over their use in the 2001 to 2006 reports and now begin to approach library and Internet research in their prevalence at 50%. Online communication applications were reported by 32% of programs, an increase of 19% over the 2001-2006 data.
Reservation-based programs reported library and Internet research at the highest rate, at 100% of programs, although this work was weakly connected to library instruction and therefore it is unclear whether academic library-supplied resources were used. At the other end of the spectrum, Culture, Text, and Language was lowest with 21% reporting library or Internet searching. The remainder of planning units ranged between 43% and 50% library/Internet use, with Core programs at the low end with 43%.
The substantial move toward presentation media and online communication in programs drives increases in multimedia applications. Presentation technology and online communication applications encourage the use of still and moving images, sound clips, graphs, and charts. These media are mixed with traditional print communication written by students or linked from Web resources. While these media and print applications involve basic, commonly used applications of information technology, they easily migrate toward more advanced media production. The increasing presence of multimedia information technology in Evergreen's learning communities drives further demand upon Media Services and Academic Computing, along with increased overlap of their teaching and service roles.
Since its inception in the context of Holly’s generic library, Media Services has followed its mission to support media literacy and instruction across the curriculum. During the last ten years, Media Services have changed dramatically as the personal computer has become the platform for entry-level media production and consumption. One measure of this change has materialized in how media staff have served programs through formal workshops since fall 2000. The scheduling data shows that almost 90% of formal program-based workshops serve Expressive Arts faculty. While this scheduling data does not cover equipment proficiency workshops or one-on-one instruction, both used more broadly across the curriculum, it is nevertheless clear that formal instruction by media staff focuses heavily on Expressive Arts programs, with an emphasis on advanced production applications, the exclusive provenance of expressive arts faculty. Media Services provides this advanced instruction in specialized labs, which were enhanced and expanded during the remodel. One effect of this specialization is that entry-level students have migrated to Academic Computing, where the staff works in collaboration with media staff to provide instruction on entry-level media-production applications. In fact, during fall and winter 2006-07, 68% of the faculty who requested workshops in Computer Center were from planning units other than Expressive Arts, and many of these workshops included media instruction (Photoshop, iMovie, Flash, etc.).
Just as in the Computer Center, the Computer Applications Lab (CAL) shows a trend toward more broadly used applications. Although the CAL has traditionally focused on the science curriculum in the Environmental Studies and Scientific Inquiry planning units, these users have begun to share their space with those who have less specialized demands. Roughly 60% to 70% of the classes in the CAL now work with statistical or numeric analysis, primarily Excel, but also with Graphical Analysis, R, and SPSS. Ninety percent of CAL users prepare presentations, most often with Powerpoint, Word, Illustrator and Excel. Approximately 60% of the programs meeting in the CAL still use analytical tools, including (in order of usage) ArcGIS, Mathematica, and Stella, which were once the focal point of all CAL applications. Science faculty have shifted their emphasis to on-site analysis, using advanced applications in specialized scientific labs in ways that parallel the shift in Media Services toward advanced applications. Meanwhile, the CAL and the Computer Center serve increasing numbers of students who seek instruction or support for the increasingly powerful personal computing applications in media production, statistical analysis, and presentation media.
Does Library Instruction Result in ITL Gains?
The Library, consistent with college-wide practices, rejects requirements and embraces students who engage in open inquiry and independent judgment. In this context, the Library supports a fluid curriculum and responds to changes that drive the needs and expectations of an innovative teaching faculty. Standard or standardized assessment methods do not apply because the Library shapes teaching according to individual students, a fluid curriculum, and highly diverse pedagogy. Instead, the Library commits to the intensive and never-ending task of recreating learning goals, student-by-student, program-by-program. Context is everything, which obviates the role of abstract standardized measures.
On the other hand, the Library does engage in qualitative assessment, the descriptive characterization of ITL teaching and learning. As is the case throughout the faculty (see Standard 2.B.3, Engagement and Reflection), library faculty write annual evaluations of themselves and their library and teaching colleagues. They also engage in five-year reviews in which a panel of teaching colleagues discusses their work. These evaluations consistently address instructional aspirations, successes, and failures. See Reflections on Library Instruction.
Further, under the leadership of the Office of Institutional Research, the librarians designed a project that assessed students as they worked through real research inquiries. The study, "The Activity of Information Literacy", documented the techniques and processes and even the thinking of several small samples of students as they collaborated intensively on research questions. The study showed that these particular students were stronger in their grasp of content than they were in their command of library research tools for their specific inquiries. In other words, a question about history might not lead them to historical abstracts. They were also strong in their ability to develop their research questions and to evaluate and synthesize the results. What these results suggest is that “Faculty may want to assess their students’ abilities to obtain information and offer tutorials or refer students to the Library when deficiencies are detected.”
Beyond the immediate results, this qualitative assessment also suggested that the students benefited greatly when they collaborated. Certainly, this observation is corroborated by the gains that students make when they work together in skill building instead of in canned computer workshops outside of programs. Additionally, peer groups are widely used across the curriculum as a way to encourage students to develop research topics and individual projects. Given the results of the qualitative assessment and given the widely practiced use of peer groups, library faculty should seek ways to implement collaborative research activities when they link their instruction to programs. This model of cooperation would build on the more isolated collaborations that take place, as a matter of course, between librarians and students at the reference desk. An enlarged vision of this basic transaction—discussion, exploration, and brainstorming—will enhance the relevance and effectiveness of library teaching and workshops.
Student Assessment of Their ITL Learning
The Evergreen Student Experience Survey (ESES) asks questions that elucidate what the students themselves think they learned at Evergreen. In 2006, the ESES asked, "To what extent have your Evergreen experiences contributed to your growth in ... the following computer-related fields...?" Responses generally matched fairly well with the perspectives found in the end-of-program surveys. For the category "Studying or Doing Research via the Internet or other online sources:
- 30.5% of Olympia-campus students reported at least some contribution.
- 47.5% reported quite a bit or a lot, for a total of 77.5%.
- More than 84% of Tacoma students reported at least some, of which 50% reported quite a bit.
- More than 93% of reservation-based students reported at least some contribution; 86.2% reporting quite a bit or a lot.
Considering how many students express self-confidence in their research skills, and as the Internet provides so many increasingly powerful tools for personal research, it is heartening to see that a good majority of students feel they developed their research skills as part of their education at Evergreen.
The 2006 ESES also asked about "Using the computer for artistic expression (e.g., music, other audio, still images, animation, video, etc.)":
- More than 42% reported that Evergreen contributed "Some," "Quite a Bit," or "A Lot"
- Fully 36.8% said "Not at All"
- 20.9% said "Very Little"
The 2006 ESES surveyed use of non-artistic computer tools, asking about specific types of applications such as spreadsheets, GIS, Web development, posters, or programming. In general, as was found in end-of-program reviews, no single type of computer application dominated. No application type was used by more than 50% of students; instead, different types of applications were used by smaller subsets of the students surveyed.
5.E.1 Participatory Planning
The institution has a planning process that involves users, library and information resource staff, faculty, and administrators.
Overall Planning for Collections & Services
The fluidity of interdisciplinary and individual study defines library services. The dean of Library Services strengthens the ties between academics and the Library and Media Services through weekly meetings with the provost, associate vice president for academic budget and planning, and academic dean of budget, as well as weekly academic deans meetings. Once a month, the director of computing and communications and the manager of Academic Computing also join the academic deans' meeting.
The interconnection of the instructional role with the planning and support functions drives the efficacy of all the services in these areas. In the Edutech Information Environment Review, Area 5 discussed planning and governance in the Evergreen information environment. The review was somewhat critical of the lack of coordination in support, planning, and governance of IT across the campus and advocated for a stronger role for the Information Technology Collaborative Hive (ITCH), an organization which links library, media, and computing managers and instructors. However, the report did not emphasize how the teaching function and role in Academic Computing, the CAL, and Media Services creates strong collaboration in all service and instruction design.
Further, placing library and information resources within the larger ethos of the college, any major policy discussions or long-term planning processes invoke the participatory college-wide Disappearing Task Force (DTF) structure. Budgetary processes are generally collaborative and include opportunities for review and input from the campus community (see Participatory Decision-Making Culture [Standard 1 Section 2.3] and Standard 6). The college budget process and schedule drives most mid-term library planning. (See Standard 7 Section 7.A.3).
Additional opportunities for community contributions to planning include faculty who rotate into the Library and who focus on collection development and other planning projects. An annual Reference Services Group retreat establishes the year's work before classes start in the fall. Faculty development reviews, also known as five-year reviews, and faculty institutes provide opportunities for conversations across campus about a range of teaching, learning, and service questions as they impact information services. The library internship program provided a reading seminar for several years within which library faculty, staff, and interns could discuss changing information technology and its cultural meaning. Finally, the librarians often engage in faculty reading seminars, frequently focused on library issues, where shared thinking about the future of libraries evolves.
Loose Structures and Responsiveness to Rapid Change in the Information Environment
Among the organizations included in library and information resources, the Library is the largest and most embedded in tradition and thus may be the most invested in preexisting professional structures and assumptions. Additionally, a comparative lack of top-down managerial structures could lead to a tendency to stagnate in some environments. How well does the Library balance the competing demands of conservation, teaching, and technological adaptation and innovation? The success of the Library’s flat organization can be measured by the impressive way in which the Library group has responded to institutional and profession-wide changes and challenges. See the Achievements document for a description of major changes in services, faculties, and collections implemented during the study period. Most of the changes are responses to opportunities provided by technological developments and external engagement in consortia. The consortia relieve any single library from much of the burden of research and develop into new technologies, an overwhelming burden for a comparatively small library such as Evergreen's. Additionally, Evergreen's library administration and staff have worked actively in leadership roles in the Orbis Cascade consortium to assure that the consortium supports efficient, cost-effective movement into the world of networked and shared resources.
5.E.2 Planning Linkages
The institution, in its planning, recognizes the need for management and technical linkages among information resource bases (e.g., libraries, instructional computing, media production and distribution centers, and telecommunications networks).
Planning Across LIR
With networked information technology and almost universal access to digitized academic information resources, coordination of planning across library and information resources has become increasingly critical. The information technology staff and librarians from across the administrative units found that while administrative restructuring did not appear to provide a more effective connection among services, it was nevertheless wise to imagine a new structure to foster collaboration. A cross-areas collaborative group entitled the Information Technology Collaborative Hive (ITCH) was created, which provides the most formal mechanism for collaboration around technology across the various parts of the college.
Evergreen supports three ITCH groups: Academic, Administrative, and Core. The Academic ITCH meets at least once a month and includes professional staff from each of the primary technology labs, faculty, and interested students. The Academic ITCH coordinates general academic IT initiatives, helps develop general academic computing policy, and guides strategic planning. Professional staff members in each of the primary technology areas have developed strong connections to discipline-specific slices of the curriculum, faculty, and academic administration. As the ITCH develops, the members will explore ways to communicate and plan in cross-disciplinary and cross-divisional programs. The ITCH provides one of the necessary cross-curricular and cross-divisional contexts for developing information technology across administratively distinct areas. The Administrative ITCH plans for administrative IT support and the Core ITCH acts as the coordinating body for all areas of IT represented in the ITCH.
The ITCH created a strategic plan in conjunction with the campus-wide strategic planning process in 2007. Strategic Direction number 7 addresses technology. The statement is notable for the breadth of its concerns, with aspirations addressing media, library, and computing technology:
- Use technology to enhance teaching and learning and administrative support at Evergreen.
Evergreen will intentionally foster secure, sustainable, flexible, easy-to-use, and accessible information technologies (IT) that support and enhance our teaching and learning philosophies and the administrative needs of the institution. Evergreen’s continuing commitment to technology and media literacies as critical components of a liberal arts education has led us to re-envision our Television Studio into a Center for New Media [now entitled the Center for Creative and Applied Media (CCAM)] that will provide cross-curricular and extra-curricular support for computer mediated production, performance, interactivity, teleconferencing, live broadcasts, digital image storage, processing, re-broadcasting, and format conversion for all areas of the college. Accuracy and quality of information will improve and strong support will make technology and a broad range of information services available to on- and off-campus users. Security requirements of networks, software, hardware and data will be met while ensuring appropriate user access, including control of access to confidential information and the need for academic exploration. Classroom spaces will be technologically current and functional for meeting curricular needs (see the complete IT Strategic Plan wiki for more detail).
The Edutech Information Environment Review recommended a stronger, more formal role and status for the ITCH, which has not found support from higher-level administrators who have budgetary responsibility over the divisions of the college. This means the ITCH continues to serve as a bottom-up structure of collaboration based on the experience of direct collaboration with and support for students, staff, and faculty users.
Continue Blending More Functions within Library and Information Resources
Library and information resources support a surprisingly diverse infrastructure of technologies and media in the curriculum. For greatest efficiency, library and information resources should consider even more coordination across boundaries to provide technology support. Students should be able to move seamlessly between different areas, such as the CAL, the Multimedia Lab (MML), and the Computer Center. Certainly, the pathways between areas could be more clearly articulated by identifying and developing more common services, including printing, building and maintaining image sets, server file space, and common software. By taking better advantage of the network infrastructure, students will experience less confusion and IT staff who directly support the curriculum could dedicate more energy toward coordinating, developing, and designing IT strategies with academic programs instead of maintaining redundant infrastructures.
Library and information resources could develop a shared perspective about their public presence. One possibility for representing blended facilities and services would be a central help desk for the Information Technology Wing. The shared entrance to the wing has become a prominent architectural feature and an opportunity to reshape the community’s understanding of what the areas collectively represent. A central help desk could provide basic information about facilities, services, and staff, and it would help facilitate how efficiently patrons move between the various floors of the wing. Continued attention to the best use of the Library Underground and how to assure its connection to other floors should be part of this process; a large, flexible teaching and gathering space is developing there and appropriate equipment will be needed to support that vision. Concurrently, assuring safety for the adjacent Archives and Rare Books Collections is critical.
Construction of the Center for Creative and Applied Media (CCAM) will begin soon. This project has distinct relevance to the changing roles of Media Services, the Library, and Academic Computing within the evolving digital liberal arts. The CCAM will comprise a collection of media production studios and equipment to complement existing Media Services and Academic Computing media resources and provide the primary bridge between the campus media infrastructure and networked digital resources. For a discussion of the CCAM and related curricular projects, see Center for Creative and Applied Media.
5.E.3 Evaluation and the Future
The institution regularly and systematically evaluates the quality, adequacy, and utilization of its library and information resources and services, including those provided through cooperative arrangements, and at all locations where courses, programs, or degrees are offered. The institution uses the results of the evaluations to improve the effectiveness of these resources.
As part of an institution constantly engaged in processes of narrative evaluation and other forms of assessment, library and information resources engage in and are the subject of extensive assessment both within library and information resources and externally through Institutional Research and Assessment surveys and studies. In addition to formal annual processes such as budget building and annual library faculty retreats, the results of these assessments feed into the development of ongoing teaching and services through constant face-to-face interactions among faculty, administrators, staff, and students, which inform all operations. The Office of Institutional Research and Assessment, as cited throughout this report, provides annual surveys about library and information resources, several of which are broken down by campus.
Collections and Access
The Web presence of the Library will, of course, continue to evolve. The Library continues work on a new library front page and database search pages. It is likely that the new library front page will become the responsibility of the college-wide Web team, freeing library staff from this unfunded work. A new federated search is being implemented. Meanwhile, the Orbis Cascade consortium is migrating to WorldCat, which the Library will consider for local use as well. A local catalog designed on the principle of Web discovery tools can be expected to generate significant changes in library use. In this context, changes in staffing may be required to support increases in use of services such as Summit and ILLiad, and the content and focus of instruction may require substantial revision. Evaluation of service and instruction via peer comparisons will change, as discovery tools will generate higher uses without increased instruction. Instruction will likely need to focus even more on evaluating sources and finding those resources not easily located via discovery tools.
The continued expansion of audiovisual media collections represents a critical part of the vision of the generic library. To that end, one-time funds have frequently been infused into a small base budget for film and sound recordings, and the collection has grown significantly. Sound & Image Library (SAIL) staff and selectors have emphasized both new titles and replacement of older formats and worn copies. The Library anticipates circulating the collection through Summit, which will increase wear. See SAIL Acquisition Statistics. Selectors will continue a recent change of policy allowing the purchase of any medium from their funds allocated for print monographs, but a stable and larger allocation for the SAIL budget would lessen the need to do so and reduce variations in expenditures, workload, and processing. The Resource Selection Committee is currently reviewing materials budgets with the intention of reallocating funds according to the curricular demands for video and digitized reference resources. If these discussions result in a larger budget for the SAIL, there will be more work, but also more consistency. Additionally, the staff will be more deeply involved in researching Web-based media collections. This additional workload represents a challenge for the SAIL.
Digital collection development should go forward in concert with the push to digitize archival collections, including photographs, video, and copies of faculty artwork. The CCAM will take the lead in this ongoing project.
Because of the Summit and ILLiad systems, the core collections do not need to support individual students who engage in inquiries that lie outside the collection profile based upon the core curriculum. However, Summit use will also allow the Library to identify whether there are any consistent weaknesses in the collection that show up as subject areas driving high borrowing rates from other institutions. The data from Summit should be analyzed over a three-year period, due to the fluidity of the curriculum, at which point the Library will decide if such data are useful in guiding collection development.
The Library will continue to take advantage of the significantly increased purchasing power created by consortial agreements for periodical and other database purchases. The Library needs to keep an eye on the time and expertise required to keep up with the ever-increasing work of evaluating these agreements, purchases, and contracts and the technical work to support electronic resources, and it may want to consider creating a position for managing electronic resources. A centralized specialist working on electronic resources would potentially help the selectors by consistently researching and disseminating information about new products.
Overall, long-standing assumptions about budgets for collections must be reevaluated. While major cuts were made to the monographic budget early in the study period and were only partially restored over time, it is not clear that simply restoring those funds and adding funds for inflation are the desirable next moves. The Resource Selection Committee will need to continue to explore more flexible responses to a rapidly changing publishing environment in order to match collection budgets to evolving research needs. Private fundraising and other non-state funds have helped close collection development gaps in some cases, such as the SAIL budget. Library and information resources overall have begun to receive private support for equipment and facilities projects as well. More work with the Office of College Advancement should be emphasized, as many alumni have demonstrated willingness to support the library and information resources.
Support for Rapidly Evolving Information Technology
While the Edutech Information Environment Review gave Evergreen good marks for its budgetary support of information technology, the report also recommended that “to follow current best practices, the replacement cycle should be permanently funded and the operations budgets need to be raised regularly to reflect the increase in technology-equipped classrooms, the increased number of servers and desktop computers that must be supported, and other increases in the technology base.” The college has begun to address this issue, proposing permanent line items in the next biennium for replacing the core server and desktops. This movement toward more permanent allocations for replacement and repair will help ensure that the infrastructure can support the curriculum. Although the ITCH can play only an advisory role, it has participated actively in the process of establishing permanent allocations, setting priorities, and sharing resources.
The remodeled Information Technology Wing and the construction of the Seminar II building created dramatically more technology-equipped teaching spaces. There are now forty-nine media and computer-capable classrooms, with more on the way. Labs are equipped with computers for each student, and most classrooms now include a computer along with projection and display systems. The Library plans to convert one classroom in the Library Underground to a lab, and teaching spaces on campus still without computers or display technology are on the way to being equipped. At this point, library and information resources just manage to support the computer facilities distributed across campus. As more spaces are computerized and enrollment creeps up toward the target of 5,000, the college will have to add additional staff and funding for maintenance. All capital construction and remodeling plans must include consideration of maintenance, replacement, and support for media and networked display.
As media technology has changed, some faculty choose to continue teaching older analog equipment, often for good pedagogical and aesthetic reasons. In the context of doubling instruction loads, this breadth of technologies generates a daunting challenge for Media Loan as it stretches to maintain, house, and teach a very wide array of portable equipment. Media Loan should work with the Expressive Arts faculty and other major users to reduce the range of Media Loan equipment necessary to support the curriculum.
The reduced number of library faculty has resulted in less ability to provide library instruction deeply and broadly to the entire curriculum. Further, reference desk service has changed as the Internet creates patrons who access our resources from remote locations. Most immediately, virtual patrons do not benefit from the teaching that takes place at the reference desk, although the transactions that do occur at reference tend to be more substantive. As traffic at the physical reference desk has diminished, faculty who rotate into the Library have more limited opportunities to learn about library resources through interactions with patrons. These trends should inform the reference group as they consider how to proceed in allocating team responsibilities with or without an increase in the number of library faculty.
The reference group should evaluate service to areas of the curriculum that report or demonstrate less involvement in the various forms of information technology instruction (as reflected in end of program reports), and consider whether more or different instructional support would be appropriate, feasible, or desirable.
Library instruction will evolve in the context of catalogs that imitate Web discovery tools. It is entirely likely that patrons will frequently discover services which have, until now, had to be pointed out to them. For the near future, however, finding and using the most effective, appropriate journal databases still requires instruction or intervention on the part of librarians or faculty. Evaluation of library instruction based upon comparative use statistics will probably be less valuable than in this past study period, as academic library finding tools will vary greatly for some time to come, creating widely disparate use statistics. Thus close attention to database use trends and their correlation to the implementation of new finding tools will be important in the near future.
Intensive, embedded library and media instruction remain the most desirable and effective models. Some librarians focus on these models, including such work as evaluating bibliographies, which become the basis for assessing the quality of student research and the basis for further instruction. Faculty librarians may want to explore evaluating research results more commonly as they develop their ties with programs and faculty in all disciplines, particularly if discovery tools generate easier access to resources beyond the immediate catalog search. As librarians become more involved in each stage of research, including writing or production, they should be able to provide more consistent support to students. Time for this work with students is restricted by the number of librarians, as is time for the more extended work essential to students from Tacoma and reservation-based programs, who depend so heavily upon off-campus access and have less opportunity to confer with librarians at the reference desk. Faculty who rotate into the Library must be more fully engaged in this aspect of the librarians' work in order to help balance the external teaching demands upon library faculty.
When the Quantitative and Symbolic Reasoning and Writing Centers were planned into the new Information Technology Wing, the hope was for substantial collaboration. While the location of these centers within the Library brings more students in, aids the sense of hospitality, and provides convenient resources for students, collaboration has remained minimal. Thus opportunities for shared instruction and service have yet to be exploited.
Cross-Curricular Information Technology Literacy
As discussed above, library and information resources and the teaching faculty assure that information technology infuses the curriculum. On the other hand, the faculty has not embraced any particular set of information technology skills as fundamental to the liberal arts undergraduate at Evergreen. Instead, faculty choose and adapt information and media technologies according to the pedagogical and disciplinary requirements of their chosen inquiry. There is little work across the curriculum about critical approaches to media or basic definitions of college-level technical literacy for the liberal arts. In the immediate future, library and information resources should invite the teaching faculty into a discussion about whether the campus has any broad consensus about Information Technology Literacy (ITL), including critical approaches. Long ago, the college committed to writing across the curriculum and allocated significant institutional resources to encourage that work—without proscriptive limits or standards. A wider discussion about ITL could produce a similar vision and institutional support. In the long run, such a vision will shape our understanding of digital scholarship in the liberal arts.
The expansion of entry-level media technology instruction raises questions about the staffing assumptions in Academic Computing. If critical approaches to information technology are to be addressed, and if cross-curricular information technology literacy is a priority for the contemporary liberal arts, then instructional staffing based on historical models of canned skills workshops may be insufficient. Academic Computing should continue current efforts to recruit instructional staff who have the expertise to work intensively in program planning and curriculum development, as well as on technical support for those activities. The numbers of such instructional IT staffing may also need to be evaluated in response to these new and expanding demands for work within the curriculum.
Conclusion: Holly's Generic Library Has Come to Fruition
Library and information resources have been deeply influenced by the organizational habits of the college, habits of collaboration, egalitarian ideals, fluidity, face-to-face interactions, non-departmentalization, reflexive learning, and independent and interdisciplinary inquiry. The result is a responsive, flexible, evolving set of services and resources. Library and information resources faculty and staff work across the media, regardless of where services reside administratively, in order to fuse traditional library services, information services, computing, and media. Library and information resources assess technology within the context of Evergreen’s particular curriculum and implement new applications incrementally in collaborative processes involving all three areas of service and the teaching faculty. As part of that work, library and information resources have had the distinct historical advantage of presuming that information comes in all formats and that it is not only possible but advisable to break down as many barriers as possible to access information in all its forms. In this, library and information resources are shaped by their founding vision - the generic library - an idea whose time has come.
Standard 5 Findings and Conclusions
1) Overall, library and information resources at Evergreen demonstrate effective development of collaborative planning, services, and instruction in support of the academic mission and educational programs of the college.
2.) Over the past decade, the Library and Media Services have fully committed to networking and digital resources. This shift has implied a change in organization, reorganization of job classifications, and the creation of new patterns of work supported in all areas.
3.) Commitment to the use of networking digital information resources has allowed and promoted the integration of all sections of library and information resources and has pushed the staff in all areas to reconceptualize their work and to find new patterns of organization and collaboration.
4.) Students and faculty are thinking about and using information resources in all media. They can now reasonably expect to have seamless access to a wide array of high-quality academic information, media, and computer applications almost anywhere on campus.
5.) The Library is funded like a public college, but the emphasis on projects, the array of inquiries, and the fact that it is a teaching library means that it is used as if it were a part of a private liberal arts college.
1.) The Evergreen Library has always been what other libraries have striven to become: a teaching library deeply connected to the faculty and curriculum. The result is that students use the Library very actively. Historically, Media Services has had the same teaching focus. Academic computing, with a longstanding instructional role, is also moving toward more substantive teaching and collaboration with faculty. This cross-curricular emphasis on teaching must be continued.
2.) The original vision of the Library was "generic," which means that it includes all media in all locations. The contemporary term in the profession is the virtual library. Evergreen's library and information resources have been able to realize the vision due to the advent of effective, ubiquitous networking and digital resources. The new technology plus major consortial agreements have created an explosion of access to high-quality scholarly information and media.
3. The remodeled and more unified Information Technology Wing is the physical manifestation of the blending of traditional print, media, and computer technology that characterizes the virtual library and information in the digital age. Despite being spread across administrative divisions, the Library, Media Services, Academic Computing, the CAL, and Computing and Communications all collaborate effectively to assure more and more seamless access to information resources. We must guard these interconnections and continue to seek opportunities for collaboration that will provide the best service, teaching, and efficiency.
1.) Through consortial agreements and wise use of resources made available to the college, an extraordinary array of high-quality academic resources. For example, the number of academic journals now available is nine times larger than at the outset of the review. Active leadership in consortia such as Orbis Cascade and the Cooperative Libraries Project supported these cost-effective approaches.
2.) The willingness of staff from all areas to share, collaborate, and dream as they worked through the complex reorganizations and new work necessary to create an operative virtual library has been extraordinary.
3.) The creation of an accessible, integrated, well-conceived teaching space with the renovation of the B and C wings of the Library has allowed the virtual library to have a physical presence that embodies the integration of these areas, while providing hospitable spaces and programming to complement virtual use information resources.
4.) The spread of digital media and computer facilities to the campus as a whole, in the Lecture Halls, and in the new classrooms of Seminar II, as well as the extension of wireless access to most of the campus has allowed the teaching resources of library and information resources to be used across the campus.
5.) Both the development of the virtual library and a continued commitment to extensive instruction have led to effective library and information resources for off-campus programs and users.
1.) Library and information resources must maintain the flexibility in staff’s capacity to respond to the rapidly changing digital environment.
2.) Library and information services must continue to remain aware of developments in information technology, critically assess them, and carefully integrate technological capacities into the staff’s capacity for teaching.
3.) Library and information resources should assure that connections between the three units (the Library, Academic Computing, and Media Services) that make up library and information resources are as seamless as possible.
4.) Media Services instructors should consciously promote considerations of media among faculty across the curriculum, as well as continue to work effectively with those who depend upon media as the center of their work.
5.) Staff from all areas should pursue and develop cross-curricular faculty conversations about information and technology as literacies for the liberal arts, including critical perspectives.
6.) Library and information services should assure that instructional staffing and library faculty is sufficient in training and numbers to support extensive, integrated information technology literacy instruction across the curriculum and to off-campus and weekend and evening programs.
7.) Library and information services should continue to develop maintenance and replacement funds to support rapidly expanding information technology, instruction, and service throughout the campus.
1.) Library, Media Services, and Academic Computing staff and faculty will collaborate in planning ongoing summer faculty institutes facilitating cross-curricular faculty conversations about information technology literacy for the liberal arts.
2.) The shape of expenditures on collections should evolve as inflation, consortia, networked access, and digital publications continue to change the information environment. The Library Resource Selection Committee will continue to review database, Summit, and local collection use, as well as allocation of non-state funds in order to appropriately support collections in all media. As a member of the Orbis Cascade Alliance, the Library will pursue collaborative collection development emphasizing strong core local collections and coordinated shared collections.
3.) The substantial instructional role necessary to support information technology literacy across the curriculum should be recognized in campus hiring priorities.
4.) The Library, Media Services, and Academic Computing will continue to emphasize shared work. Several areas of potential collaboration in addition to faculty institutes include considering a shared public presence at the newly emphasized main entrance to the Information Technology Wing, an increased role for the ITCH in planning and management of information technology on campus, shared staff positions, shared hiring processes, and more collaborative instruction for academic programs.